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The Research For Reconstruction Of The Living Ability Of Immigrants In Water Resource Engineering Project

Posted on:2015-07-01Degree:DoctorType:Dissertation
Country:ChinaCandidate:J J HeFull Text:PDF
GTID:1316330428475168Subject:Technical Economics and Management
Abstract/Summary:PDF Full Text Request
In per capita terms, our country is not rich in resources. With the social economic development, the increased demand for clean energy and water resources allocation making our country build a large amount of water resources and hydropower engineering projects, such as the three gorges project and south-north water diversion project, etc. During the construction of these large and medium-sized water conservancy and hydropower engineering projects, a large number of water conservancy project immigrants are inevitably emerged, and these immigrants are involuntary immigration. Unlike the voluntary immigrants, they are compelled to do migration behavior due to social intervention. Although the government made immigrants relocation planning accordingly, put forward "be able to move, be able to live, be able to rich" as the policy goals, and offer settlement area for immigrants, and certain economic compensation on the premises and attached facilities, rural migrants plow garden. As a general view, however, due to the livelihood capital change after the relocation of water conservancy projects migrants, the failure of human capital, social capital interrupt, materials and natural capital loss more specifically, which causes vulnerabilities of the immigrant family livelihood, and the families then get quite easily to fall in secondary poverty. The pre-stage immigration resettlement compensation policy considers more about the payment of real matters and tangible form cost but takes no sufficient consideration of the value of intangible loss for immigrants. The loss of the most important human capital and social capital for intangible value not only strengthened the immigration livelihood vulnerability but also weakened the ability of sustainable livelihoods at the same time. This phenomenon does not only exist in Chinese water conservancy project immigration, but also in the ecological immigrants and engineering immigrants of other countries. Therefore, the world bank's famous immigration expert Cernea (1988) points out that the involuntary immigration would lead to the facing to the risks of losing land, jobs, homes, relocation to the edge district, food insecurity, health levels decline, loss of common material possessions and the destruction of the social network, thus increase the risk of a migration poverty.Poverty of migration of water conservancy projects will destabilize immigrant groups, which would not only affect regional economic development and social stability, but also greatly restrict the formation of water resources and hydropower engineering career. As academician Jiakou Pan and Youmei Lu pointed out on the "United Nations seminar on hydropower and sustainable development" in2004:" the flooded ground and immigration are the cost of the development of hydropower and associated with flooded ground but more difficult to deal with is the immigration, the immigration work is very complex and difficult, so the key to a successful water conservancy projects is to do a great work of hydropower project immigration ". Based on this, the United Nations have long been considering the world poverty governance issues of water resources and hydropower engineering immigrants as an important research subject. China has the most immigrants in the projects of the world's water resources and hydropower engineering, with a total immigration population of more than23million people. Considering the later replacement is used as the main resolution for immigrants, the poor natural environment of reservoir district, and the ubiquitous contradiction between big amount of people and few lands, the steady get-rich measure after relocation has caught the attention of the government. Especially the millions of immigrant resettlement and placement of the three gorges project draws a new height of attention on hydraulic engineering immigrants'steady get-rich growth and sustainable livelihoods.Although the state has put great efforts on the pre-stage setting and post support to avoid the migrant family poverty as much as possible, still, the sustainable livelihood problem is a quite important content of the poverty management for water conservancy projects migrants. At present, the livelihood problem of the water conservancy project migrants is mainly manifested in such aspects:(1) part of immigrants with a low level of income would face a risk of secondary poverty;(2) the environmental capacity of relocation area is insufficient, and the immigrants needs more resources for sustainable livelihood;(3) people still lack employment skills and face the problems to transfer to new jobs;(4) the imperfect infrastructure cannot meet the needs for immigrants production and development;(5) the function of the relocation area economic development system is not sufficient. From these aspects, the biggest problem of the water conservancy immigrants is how to realize sustainable livelihood and how to enhance the livelihood ability of the immigrants.For the water conservancy project immigration sustainable livelihood, the civil scholars have done many researches from many aspects. However, due to the lack of debates on the theoretical researches of livelihood, there is still no in-depth livelihood research area has been formed yet. Although, aiming at the reason of immigrant poverty, some scholars introduce the idea of livelihood ability reengineering based on the livelihood analyzing framework. And this idea takes livelihood ability as a procedure of reengineering, which claims only the enhancement of immigrants living ability could realize the sustainable livelihood. But the research on the livelihood ability reengineering only reaches at the level of proposed terms and operational interpretation. The lack of continued in-depth debates and theoretical construction make the livelihood ability reengineering cannot become one universal paradigm of sustainable livelihood and the corresponding research area of livelihood ability reengineering cannot take shape. Looking further ahead, if we want to make the theoretical construction of livelihood ability then we have to interpret the practical ability theory, while there are few people work on this problem theoretically. Therefore, method based on the practical ability has not gone to in-depth study, it also cannot provide the necessary help for livelihood ability reengineering theory constructionBased on the focus of the water conservancy projects immigrant research, this article tries to build a more clear research direction of water conservancy projects immigrant sustainable livelihood, through the further promotion of the idea of livelihood ability reengineering. In this article, the water conservancy projects immigrant is taken as the research object, its livelihood ability reengineering is taken as the breakthrough point, the practical ability theory and property rights theory are taken as the fundamental core theory. Through the deconstruction of practical ability and the system guarantee analysis of the property right theory to construct the living ability term and defined it as:It is dominated by relevant regulation, conducted by social organization intervention, in scope of area or community,on the basis of family, the formation and growth process of the individual ability to adapt and develop in the new living environment, which reflects on the changes in the external functional activities, and displays the overall resulting utility increase.The accumulation of the living capacity and the improvement process of its matching security system is the core elements of reengineering process. On the basis of theoretical construction, this paper analyzes the livelihood ability reengineering implementation mechanism and guarantee mechanism of water conservancy project immigrants, and conducted empirical study on the S reservoir immigrant livelihood ability reengineering effect evaluation and the relationship among affecting factors. In this paper, the main content includes:The first part:introduction. This part mainly introduces the research background, research significance and related concepts, puts forward the problem to be solved, sets the research route, research methods, and makes the arrangement of full text structure and contents.The second part:theoretical basis. According to the research need, this part gives the brief introduction about the core concept and development of the complex scientific management, practical ability theory, property right theory, human capital theory and social capital theory.The third part:The analysis framework of water conservancy project immigrant livelihood ability reengineering. This part introduces the concept of living ability under the analyzing framework of the sustainable livelihood, and the way to realize sustainable livelihood of water conservancy projects immigrants is livelihood ability reengineering is put forward. Then, through the integral analysis on the practical ability, the redefinition of livelihood ability reengineering is completed. On the basis of redefinition, the connotation and external basic type of the livelihood ability reengineering are pointed out. After that, through this problem the livelihood ability reengineering analyzing framework is introduced to analyze the influential factors of livelihood ability reengineering and the internal relations of those factors. Finally, from the livelihood ability reengineering survey and the correlation analysis of influencing factors two aspects, this article introduces the empirical analysis method for livelihood ability reengineering.The fourth part: the research on the resource acquisition ability reengineering of water conservancy immigrants. On the basis of the previous chapter, the implementation mechanism of water conservancy project immigrants livelihood ability reengineering is analyzed. First of all, after the analysis on the definition and characteristics of human capital, this part talks about the human capital acquisition method consist of institutional factors and infrastructure. And then, after the analysis on the definition, category and characteristics of social capital, the article talks about the social capital acquisition method consist of family, social organization, social district and infrastructure.The fifth part: the research on the water conservancy project immigrants employment ability reengineering. This part talks about the two influential factors on the employment ability, the human capital and social capital's influences on the employment ability reengineering. For the human capital part, transferring the human capital into employment ability education, professional training, employment migration and medical security, the four routes have been analyzed. And the debates on the immigrant employment ability human capital reengineering method are made, from the relationships of human capital and the employment information ability, job-choosing ability, career adaptability and earning capacity. For the social capital part, the article talks about the social capital reengineering method of immigrant employment ability from the relationships of the employment ability and the strong-weak relation, structural holes and the social resources firstly. And then talks about the social capital reengineering method from, the reduction of water conservancy engineering immigrant employment transaction costs, increase of the water conservancy project immigrant employment probability, improvement of the quality of water conservancy project immigrant employment and the influence of water conservancy projects immigrant employment transfer decision-making, four aspects.The sixth part: research on the water conservancy project immigrant social risk response capacity reengineering. This part introduces endowment, unemployment and medical the three social risks the immigrants might face. Then through the introduction of the vulnerability analyzing framework, this article analyzes the policy and the effect of social organization in the deal with immigrant social risks and build the analyzing thought of the capacity reengineering method of dealing with the immigrant social risks. After that, this article talks about the way to enhance the ability of immigrants to deal with social risks from the aspects of the immigrant policy and social organization.The seventh part: this part takes the example of continuous monitoring data of S reservoir to do the qualitative and quantitative analysis of livelihood ability reengineering of reservoir immigrants. Firstly, this paper introduces the present situation of S reservoir resettlement livelihood; Secondly, the article uses the membership model to measure the livelihood ability reengineering effect of the S reservoir immigrants; At last, this article uses the production function model to make an empirical analysis of the influencing factors of the S reservoir immigrant livelihood ability reengineering. The main research conclusions are as follows:(1)The ability method is in the study of sustainable livelihoods, which needs to be continuously deepened to be used in the livelihood ability reengineering theory construction.Practical ability is no longer just be regarded as a set of functional activities, its connotation can be decomposed into system, environment, resource and ability of endogenous four elements, and taking two the two dynamic process of turning the living ability into the functional activities as an integrity ability concept, based on this holistic concept, livelihood ability reengineering can be regarded as a process ability formation and transformation.(2)Theory construction on the livelihood ability reengineeringBased on the theory of practical ability, the ability of living reengineering is taken as dominated by relevant system and conducted by social organization intervention, by area or community space, on the basis of the family, the formation and growth process of the individual ability to adapt and develop in the new living environment, which reflects on the changes in the external functional activities, and displays the overall resulting utility increase. In this way, because of its explicit functional activity characteristics, livelihood ability reengineering can be directly linked to benefits, which makes the concept can be measured. On the basis of property rights, livelihood ability reengineering process is taken as the system guarantee process under the set of the subject property.(3)The analysis on the livelihood ability reengineering realization mechanismOn the analysis of the livelihood ability reengineering, the main impact factors are the system factor, environment factor, family factor and environmental factor, and the main influencing factors are human capital and social capital. Through the analysis of the relationship between impact factors, the capital gain ability reengineering, employability reengineering and social risk coping capacity reengineering realization mechanism could be analyzed further from the perspective of social capital and human capital.(4)Analysis of the guarantee mechanism of living ability reengineeringIn the guarantee mechanism analysis of livelihood ability reengineering, the system factor and environmental factor is mainly body of the guarantee. Looking further ahead, these two factors can be broken down into four factors including specific immigration policy, social organization, market mechanism and infrastructure. For the guarantee matter, education and training, employment and migration, immigration entrepreneurship, economic cooperation organization, community participation, social assistance, social security and project support, etc. can directly influence the accumulation of social capital and human capital and sustainable cash flow of immigrant families. Therefore, livelihood ability reengineering guarantee mechanism could operate through the protection of the main factors of the water conservancy project immigrants livelihood ability reengineering.(5)The empirical research conclusion of the water conservancy project immigrant livelihood ability reengineering effect evaluation.Water conservancy project immigrants living ability have been improved markedly. The empirical results show that the overall ability of the immigrants after relocation are improved significantly, but still lies between0.4-0.5,which has not yet break through fuzzy condition to achieve better level, therefore, the ability improvement work is still a long way to go.(6) The empirical research conclusion on affecting factors'correlation of the water conservancy project immigrants livelihood ability reengineering.1) In general, the annual per capita net income (the livelihood of the overall capacity) is affected by natural capital, human capital, social capital and financial capital. Among these, the influence of the human capital on annual per capita net income is the most significant, for example,1yuan per increase of investment in human capital will bring yearly growth of$0.3per capita net income.2) The livelihood diversification mainly in non-agricultural activities would make ensure the revenue growth and improvement of living standards, which also reduces the vulnerability and the risk of single living activity, reduces the pressure of the land, and is beneficial to ecological rehabilitation and reconstruction. Bringing the non-agricultural activities into immigrants'life can realize the virtuous circle of the domestic economy, because the income from non-agricultural activities can support agricultural production and agricultural production could provide basic life guarantee and jobs for other family members (such as the elderly, women and children). The implementation of this strategy needs the ascension of human capital (quality) and financial capital investment.3) Increasing the educational human capital investment to promote the social mobility of human capital and affect the social mobility and improve the ability of individuals for their livelihoods through career choices and employment ability."By educational human capital investment,.the younger generation can successfully complete professional non-agricultural transformation, social vertical flow can be realized, the ability to make a living will be greatly enhanced and also the population pressure can be reduced. Convert professional performance as the social mobility enables the immigrants enough ability to resist risks in the face of the living environment changes to achieve sustainable livelihoods. But on the other hand, the opportunity cost and the risk of investment in education is also higher, once the unemployment would bring great influence to the individuals and families.
Keywords/Search Tags:Water conservancy project immigrants, Livelihood abilityreengineering, Ability to obtain resources employment, Social risk response capacity, Sustainable livelihood
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