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Detection Heuristics Research

Posted on:2022-06-23Degree:DoctorType:Dissertation
Country:ChinaCandidate:H B HeFull Text:PDF
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Detection heuristics studies the cognitive principles and thinking models of investigators under fuzzy conditions.For investigators themselves,when they participate in the detection of a certain case,they often have confusion and doubts about some aspects or details of the case.For a detection team,in the special detection of a difficult case,they are likely to be in a deadlock because of the lack of clues or difficult to verify.For a detection department,it is a tough task to clear up those old cases and accumulated cases that have not been solved for many years.These difficulties are not the reasons and excuses for the detection to stop,but the motivation for the investigators to seek effective cracking methods,which together point to the root of the breakthrough and transformation of the investigators' cognitive methods.In practice,investigators have explored and practiced various effective cognitive paths to get out of the dilemma and out of the impasse,such as the traditional way to judge the suspect's characteristics according to the identification of footprints and the modern way to track suspicious clues through big data analysis.However,the academic circle has not systematically explained the generative principle and operating mechanism of this cognitive path,let alone explored and refined the cognitive law under this fuzzy situation,which sets up the problem situation for the proposal of the detection heuristics.In order to fully grasp and deeply analyze this issue,the author tries to focus on the detection method system built according to the method concept structure within the theory system of investigation science.Through integrating and transforming those theories based on the same psychological problem background,such as medical diagnosis thinking,cognitive psychology problem-solving thinking,and behavioral economics judgment rules under uncertain conditions,to accurately echo the five research perspectives of the detection heuristics,namely,the ontology profile,the generation mechanism,the operation phenomenon,the thinking law,and the practical application.In this way,we can effectively answer three basic questions: what is the detection heuristics,why does the detection heuristics come into being,and how to use the detection heuristics.This can scientifically reveal the habitual cognitive phenomena,cognitive principles and cognitive laws of investigators under fuzzy conditions.In order to enrich and supplement the detection method system in the "way to achieve the goal" of the level of thinking methods.The first chapter,the summary of detection heuristics,mainly clarifies the basic problem of what detection heuristics is from three levels: among the heuristics,above and below the heuristics.That is,the connotation and extension of detection heuristics,the theoretical basis on detection heuristics,and the practice evolution of detection heuristics.The first section,the connotation and extension of detection heuristics,first through the common heuristic cognitive phenomena,cognitive scenes,cognitive characteristics to clearly grasp the concept of detection heuristics and research elements.Then,based on the irrational reality of cognitive judgment,this paper puts forward the inevitable reason why detection heuristics is used as an optional strategy in the cognitive system of detection,and points out some cognitive biases that may be generated by applying detection heuristics.Finally,the research field is changed from connotation to extension,and the detection heuristics is accurately located in the detection method system according to the concept level of the method,and the creativity,implicit,habit and priority of the detection heuristics in the detection method system are expounded.The second section,the theoretical basis of detection heuristics,first focuses on the generation of heuristic cognition,based on four epistemological theories of authoritarianism,mysticism,empiricism and rationalism to reach the cognitive approach,and deeply analyzes the different theoretical sources of heuristic cognition.Then,around the principle of heuristic cognition,the three basic concerns of what heuristic is,why heuristic is generated and whether heuristic is reliable are explained in a simple way.Finally,based on the psychological explanation and the tendency law of cognition,we distinguish and analyze the accuracy of heuristic cognition and the possible cognitive errors.The third section,the practice evolution of detection heuristics,not only summarizes and analyzes the classic application cases of detection heuristics in ancient Chinese judicial practice,but also expounds and compares the specific application of detection heuristics in foreign countries.Finally,based on the application situation of heuristic cognitive activities,the author puts forward that detection heuristics is a creative thinking method to break through the deadlock.The second chapter,the generation of detection heuristics,mainly on the basis of deep deconstruction of the psychological process of detection cognition,explains the original problem of how detection heuristics occurs from two perspectives of micro interaction and macro extension.The first section,the generating basis of detection heuristics,starts with the sensory change phenomenon in detection cognition and describes the psychological process and category characteristics of investigators' sensory organs to reflect objective things,distinguishes the differences of sensory performance among different investigators,and puts forward the relevant factors to enhance the accuracy of sensation.Then,from sensation to perception,analyzing the generating principle,process and characteristics of investigators' perception,and explaining the perception phenomenon in detection cognition with pattern recognition theory and information processing theory respectively.Finally,explaining the possible misperception caused by the distortion of the investigator's perception,analyzing the subjective and objective factors of the misperception,and pointing out the ways to reduce the misperception as much as possible.In the second section,the microscopic generation of detection heuristics,according to Polanyi's theory on the division of the two kinds of awareness in the formation of tacit knowledge,it illustrates the threedimensional structure and interactive characteristics of the assistant awareness,the focus awareness and the investigators in the same thinking domain.The third section,the macroscopic generation of detection heuristics,mainly follows the generative pathways of cognitive psychology such as attention,memory and association,and analyzes the generation steps of detection heuristics from three stages: the concentration of heuristics psychology,the reflow of heuristics information and the activation of heuristics network,and reveals the changing process and development rules of detective heuristic psychology.The third chapter,the operation of detection heuristics,mainly analyzes the external operation form of detection heuristics,explores the internal operation mechanism of detection heuristics,and summarizes and explains the operation characteristics of detection heuristics from three aspects.In the first section,the operation mode of detection heuristics is described in three forms: excitation state,transition state and detour state of different paths.The cognitive mode of excited state is inspiration,which emphasizes that when people are emotionally relatively active and thinking continuously focused,the brain nerve is optimized and reorganized after the subconscious mind is activated.The cognitive mode of transition state is intuition,which emphasizes an enlightening cognitive state in which people directly grasp the essence of the problem according to existing knowledge and experience with highly simplified perceptual knowledge when facing new problems that suddenly appear.The cognitive mode of detour state is insight,which emphasizes that it is an enlightening cognitive state to realize circuitous progress through the re-representation of the problem and the extension of the connection line between the cognitive goal and the cognitive means in thinking.The second section,the operation mechanism of detection heuristics,summarizes the three mechanisms of three steps,three stages and trilogies.The so-called "three steps" refers to that detection heuristic cognition is mostly divided into three successive steps: thinking input,thinking output and thinking feedback.The so-called "three stages" refers to the spiral rising stage from perceptual concrete to abstract thinking and then to concrete thinking.The so-called "Trilogy" refers to the three progressive levels of the detection heuristic cognition through the selection,reconstruction and simulation of thinking.The third section,the operation characteristics of detection heuristics,has refined three widely divergent characteristics,namely,the superposition and resonance of multiple thinking forms,the comprehensive analysis method running through the whole process,and the sublimation of the overall thinking quality.The fourth chapter,the thinking law of detection heuristics,mainly explores the fuzziness,creativity and connection of detection heuristic thinking.The first section mainly distinguishes and analyzes the fuzziness characteristic of the detection heuristic thinking.The objective things of heuristic cognition are accurate,but the cognitive practice of investigators to the objective things is vague.The cognitive model extracted by detection heuristic is accurate,but the subjective result of detection heuristic cognition may be fuzzy.In the process of detection heuristic cognition,fuzzy knowledge and precise knowledge are the unity of opposites,and the logic of fuzzy knowledge is helpful for investigators to choose the heuristic model reasonably.The second section focuses on the creative characteristics of the detection heuristic thinking.The detection heuristic cognition starts from the investigator's analysis of the current state of the case,and it embodies the typical factor analysis thinking,which is the premise attribute.Then it emphasizes the basic role of various theoretical and practical knowledge in the analysis of the elements of the case and the detection heuristic cognition,showing obvious knowledge applied thinking,which is the basic attribute.Finally,based on the reality of detection work and the cognitive practice of most investigators,the author holds that detection heuristics lie in a kind of creative thinking that lays emphasis on the cognitive process,which is the essential attribute.The third section focuses on analyzing the connective characteristics of the detection heuristic thinking.That is to say,the analogy transfer heuristic model which establishes the similar relation from one to the other between the source problem and the target problem,the mean-purpose heuristic model which seeks the connection path from small to large in the case space,and the psychological analysis heuristic model which establishes the mapping relationship from inside to outside between the criminal fact and the criminal mind.The fifth chapter,the practical application of detection heuristics,mainly summarizes the three cognitive rules of detection heuristics,analyzes the three types of factors affecting the application of detection heuristics,and deduces the application of the three heuristics model of analogy transfer,means-purpose and psychoanalysis.The first section,the applicable rules of detection heuristics,starts from the point of view that "investigators are not completely rational nor irrational in the cognitive process,but in a state of bounded rationality".By considering people's tendency of judgment under uncertain conditions,this paper puts forward the rules of habitability,accessibility and anchoring adjustment for investigators to apply the detection heuristics.In the second section,the factors affecting the application of detection heuristics,focuses on the applicable rules of the detective heuristic cognition,and profoundly explain the three factors affecting the generation of rules in the detective cognition: case knowledge,psychological set,and functional fixation.The third section,the practical model of detection heuristics,uses the case analysis method to carry on the detection practice deduction to the three heuristic models.The analogy transfer heuristic which emphasizes explicit correlation pays more attention to the fuzzy recognition of similar features and provides a powerful cognitive path for the detection of parallel cases.The meanpurpose heuristic which emphasizes case space pays more attention to the fuzzy recognition of the circumferential search and describes a flexible and efficient heuristic way to detect the new crime cases in telecommunication network.The psychoanalysis heuristic which emphasizes the implicit correlation pays more attention to the fuzzy recognition of psychological traces and points out the reference basis for clearly delineating and discerning the characteristics and trends of criminal suspects.The detection heuristics is a useful supplement to the thought existence method in the detection method system and has a general guiding significance.Its theoretical reliability and validity are to be observed,tested and fed back by detection practice.It is expected to become a credible and effective method of cognitive thinking in detection.
Keywords/Search Tags:detection, heuristics, thinking, connectionist models, heuristic rule
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