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Defect And Saving--Maugham's Humanity Exploration

Posted on:2005-10-27Degree:MasterType:Thesis
Country:ChinaCandidate:X J HouFull Text:PDF
GTID:2155360122999404Subject:Comparative Literature and World Literature
Abstract/Summary:PDF Full Text Request
Humanity exploration is all along an important theme in the universe. The emancipation of humanity has been the writers' focus. Especially, the western writers paid more attention to it, and they revealed and criticized sharply the destroyed humanity by the western civilization. Serious thoughts and exploration were given to the humanity problem in Maugham's three famous novels "OF HUMAN BONDAGE", "THE MOON AND SIXPENCE", and " THE RAZOR'S EDGE ". He tried to find out a good way out for the recovery of humanity. Therefore, Maugham attempted to help his heroes seek the harmony and perfect between the reality and spirits, looking for an ideal universe. He built the beautiful and peaceful natural world, new Garden of Eden and mysterious Xianggelila, creating a new way of living beyond the western culture .The way of " return to nature" arranged by Maugham made his heroes get rid of the realistic difficulty and find the soul's home. The heroes' ideals ,the spiritual freedom, and the trace of their living was to find out themselves and refuse the society. The process of their pursuit was the process of self-expectation(Philip), self – realization (Strickland) and self-surpass(Larry).By portraying his characters ,Maugham experimented with his three steps: the reflections of self – lost, the attempt to self- seeking and self-expression, showing the theme "Of Human Bondage" through seeking-seizing- surpassing, and the state and ideal of existence under the background of western society by portraying the list of heroes. They changed from social men into natural men and supermen. In histhree works, Maugham completed his cool-headed reflection, critique on society, the deep thoughts and exploration for life. The works recorded Maugham's life journey and represented the lifestyle he sought for himself and human being. The thesis attempts to discuss Maugham's humanity exploration from three aspects.Chapter I: Humanity defect—sufferings and misfortunes. In the western countries based on materialistic life, money was a great fascination to people. After Nietzsche declared :"God has died", people regarded money as their "God". The pursuit of money and fame became the only goal. For money, they could sell love, friendship, relatives and something else. Money is the source of all devils. The strong desire for money made people become selfish, hypocritical, greedy, cool-hearted and unconventional. The devils appeared on life stage and the virtue gradually disappeared in human nature. The defect of human nature was inevitable due to the destruction on human nature by the capitalistic industrial society. It brought people sufferings and misfortunes as well. People suffered a lot from the miserable life. Chapter II: Humanity awakening— freedom and quietness. On one hand, Maugham's works revealed the weakness of human nature deeply, on the other hand, he portrayed some fighters who got rid of the spiritual bondage upon them to pursue freedom and aesthetic ideals. From the angle of human awakening, Maugham showed the readers how the westerners overcame the weakness of human nature and stepped on the self-saving roads to look for the lost paradise, a free and quiet place for their soul. The writer shifted his attention to the beautiful nature. He arranged a way of living to return to the nature where their souls could be saved from the destruction. Philip enjoyed his true, quiet and idyllic life in the beautiful countryside; Strickland started his aesthetic easy way of art in the primitive and uncivilized forest ; Larry stepped on the most kind and detached way of worship. However, they experienced numerous hardships and sufferings while pursuing their real life. But the physical sufferings could not break them. They must challenge themselves, society and traditional custom. They must be the winners in the struggle by their strong will. Finally they extricated themselves from difficulties. The heroes' experiences and pursuit for truth, kindness and beauty e...
Keywords/Search Tags:Saving--Maugham's
PDF Full Text Request
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