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A Study On The Implications Of German Universities Of Applied Sciences To The Transformation Of Newly-built Undergraduate Universities Of Our Country

Posted on:2016-09-27Degree:MasterType:Thesis
Country:ChinaCandidate:F LongFull Text:PDF
GTID:2297330461968096Subject:Higher Education
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Currently, China’s economic development is in a period of industrial restructuring and upgrading in which the industrial structure has been evolving from labor intensive mode to technology intensive mode so a great quantity of talents with high-level technology are needed. On the other hand, with the enrollment expansion of universities since 1999, there have been more and more college graduates year by year. In correspondence with this, it has become more and more difficult for them to find a job due to the fierce competition, which has also become a social issue of public concern. In other words, the structural contradiction in the job market is very serious. On the one hand, university graduates face great employment pressure. On the other hand, enterprises can not find appropriate talents with high-level technology in the talent market. It has been revealed that the developed countries with low unemployment rate usually have reasonable structures of education adapting to their industrial structures. Correspondingly, the industrial structures of countries with high unemployment rate are often not suitable for their structures of education. Therefore, the structural contradiction in our job market actually reflects the problem of mismatch of structures of education to industrial structures. So it is a matter of great urgency to conduct higher education reform, to form a higher education structure adapting to the industrial structure and to implement classified management of higher education.To resolve the contradiction between the rapid transition of industrial structure and the lack of talents with high-level technology and to raise the employment rate of university graduates, the State Council issued "the Decision to Accelerate the Development of Modern Vocational Education", coming up with the idea of guiding a group of ordinary colleges and universities in transition to application-oriented universities by the way of pilot promotion and model demonstration. The key is to hold undergraduate vocational education. Besides, it is imperative to establish classification system of colleges and universities, implement classified management of higher education and accelerate the establishment of classification evaluation, guiding and funding. The newly-built undergraduate universities are the main pilots in this higher education reform because these universities have short history and the overall strength of running universities is relatively weak. Their development has been limited both in speed and quality so it is also more difficult for their graduates to find jobs. Sometimes the unemployment rate of their graduates is even lower than those of junior vocational colleges. Thus, it is imperative for newly-built undergraduate universities to transform and develop all round.Universities of applied sciences of Germany are important pillars of its higher education system. In the past more than 50 years of development, they gradually form a complete and mature system of school-running and are experienced in training practical talents with their unique talent training mode. They have made indelible contribution to German economic development. Therefore, studying on the development of German universities of applied sciences will provide positive reference for the transformation and development of newly-built undergraduate universities of our country.Based on the above discussion, in this paper, I will introduce and analyze the historical development, schooling pattern, educational characteristics and guarantee systems of German universities of applied sciences in the hope that it will provide positive reference for the transition to application-oriented universities of newly-built undergraduate universities of our country and this paper can be divided into 3 main parts as below:First of all, in the introduction part, I raise the question, expound the significance of research, make literature review and come up with the research ideas and methods of this study.Then, in the second part, I review and analyze the state of development of German universities of applied sciences. Firstly, I define the translation of FH and elaborate on its background as well as its developing process. After that, I analyze its schooling pattern with the emphasis on its educational objectives, admission requirements, degree granting, management mechanisms, academic and teaching arrangements, curriculum design, teaching form and evaluation method, In the introduction for the educational characteristics of German universities of applied sciences, I attach importance to its "Dual System", excellent teaching staff, applied science research and international development. Finally in this part, I talk about the guarantee systems of German universities of applied sciences with focuses on its legal protection system, funds safeguard system and quality assurance system.Finally, I shift the focus to newly-built undergraduate universities of our country. In the beginning, I define the scope of newly-built undergraduate universities and introduce their types. Then, I explore their status of development from the aspects of school-running level, administration mechanism and financial source. On the basis of above discussion, I summarize some problems about the transformation development of newly-built undergraduate universities of our country, including inaccurate school localization, unclear training objectives, unreasonable income structure, featureless specialty setting, lack of practical teaching system and weak teaching faculty. After that, I explicate the connotation of transformation and development of newly-builtundergraduate universities of our country and explore the approaches to the transformation and development from both internal and external sides. From external side, the government should improve legislation to ensure the sources as well as allocation of funding for newly-built undergraduate universities, enhance the top design, consummate matching policies, make responsibilities of various parties clear, and accelerate the reform of enrollment system to protect the pool of student applicants for newly-built undergraduate universities. At social level, enterprises should actively participate in school-enterprise cooperation. From internal side, newly-built undergraduate universities themselves should have explicit school localization, target at fostering talents for application, create characteristic specialty to meet the needs of local industries, attach importance to practical education and construct high quality teaching staff.
Keywords/Search Tags:Germany, University of applied sciences, Newly-built undergraduate university, transformation
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