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On The Metaphysical Research Of People-Oriented Approach

Posted on:2011-04-25Degree:DoctorType:Dissertation
Country:ChinaCandidate:S G ChenFull Text:PDF
GTID:1116360305483256Subject:Basic principles of Marxism
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"The metaphysical research on People-Oriented Approach" aims at giving a fundamental answer to the four meta-theoretical level problems, that is:"What is 'people oriented?'","Why people are oriented?", "Why people oriented can be reality?" and "What is the ultimate pursuit of'people oriented'?"."What is'people oriented'?". As to what is "people oriented", it can be explained from four "key words" following:Firstly, what does the "people" of "people oriented" refer to? There are three dimensions:class, group and individual. The existences of human being include class existence, group existence and individual existence, "people oriented" ought to be surveyed and studied from this three dimensions also. "People oriented" must reflect the "Class" dimensions, but prevent from Anthropocentrism which disregards other species; "people oriented" must reflect the "Group" dimension, but prevent from Collective Absolutism of which the collective suppresses the individuals; "people oriented" must reflect the "Individual" dimension, but prevent from extreme individualism that is personal supremacy. Secondly, what is the object of "people oriented"? China is still in the initial stage of Socialism and is a class society, "people oriented" is not oriented in each individual, not in the interests of the minority and everyone, but in the interests of the overwhelming majority of the people; not in the "certain" benefits or "all" interests of the overwhelming majority, but in most people's "fundamental" interests. Thirdly, who is the subject of "people oriented"? Broadly speaking, everyone is the main practical subject of "people-oriented". "People oriented" should be a conscious performance of the historical-subject and democratic sense of the whole sectors and everyone in the society. In the narrow sense, its subject is the Communist Party of China (CPC).The key of implementing and applying the Scientific Outlook on Development of "people oriented" is the CPC. Fourthly, what is the basis of "people oriented" refer to? It does not refer to the "noumenon", but means the "fundamentality". The "people oriented" of the Scientific Outlook on Development is not an ontological concept, but a concept of value theory and an idea of history viewpoint."Why people are oriented?" The beginning of the "people oriented" in the Scientific Outlook on Development was due to the discussion of values, but it can be expanded in the level of Ontology. The hominology ontology mainly emphasizes "what is human", though "people oriented" mainly talks about the issue "how to treat people". The former is an ontological problem, the latter is a value problem. There is inherent logic association between them, that is:the answer to "what is human" will determine the answer to "how to deal with people". In other words, giving a correct answer to the question "how to deal with people" depends on a correct answer to the question "what is human". The origin of "people oriented" is the problem of values, but it should be solved on the ontology level.As we all know, looking for "logos" is a consistent complex of the western traditional hominology. The entanglement of the substantial ontology is a strong theoritical tradition that the western traditional hominology can not get rid of. The western traditional hominology forgot the real people when they were in the process of pursuing the "identity" (logos); at the same time, they fell into the "homeless" situation when they were looking for "the foundation of Man". The road of searching for the "substance" leads to "a road of enslavement of people". The western traditional hominology regards some physical properties substance, divinity substance, rational substance as the ultimate reason and base for the person. So in the real life, people have to see them as the foundation, and the humanistic dimension was covered.The western traditional hominology study reached its peak in Hegel and started to appear a trend that is from abstract rationality to returning to realistic sensibility. In this regression road, Feuerbach was a significant figure who can not be avoided. Feuerbach firstly elevated the "sensibility" to the status of ontology, trying to realize a sensitive turning of the ontology, but he failed to carry it out in the end and only stopped in an abstract level of sensibility. Feuerbach's perception ontology is exactly perceptual-intuitive ontology. Although Feuerbach shouted the slogan "the main body of the god is rationality" passionately in order to counter the primary theological principle "I am what I am", which opened up a new path that replaced" God is the highest human nature" by "Man is the highest human nature" and greatly shook the hard core of theological ontology as well as the value orientation of "god oriented", but failed to complete the noble mission of "pushing over the god authority to restore human supremacy". Although Feuerbach put forward the scientific proposition "the subject of rationality is human" with full of wisdom to counter the modern philosophical tradition "rationality materialization", which opened up a new direction of ending the rationalist tradition that is "I think therefore I am" by "I wish therefore I am", but ultimately failed to get rid of the strong tradition of blasphemy of the rationality ontology. The beginning of the perceptual-intuitive ontology gives a new hope to the humanistic dimension which was deeply covered for a long time. But after all, it is only low extension and instinctive resistance under a long suppression. When returns to the real life, the weakness of the humanistic science and the poorness of the intuitive ontology were fully exposed.Ontology-Pursuit is an indispensable meaning dimension of Marx's hominology. It appears in Marx's texts that the basis of the ontology that human existence lies in the "human perceptual living activities", which established ontology with modern survival dimension which was called "perceptual-living ontology". Compared with the traditional ontology, the appearance of perceptual-living ontology is an "ontology break" in the history of hominology thought. It indicates a thorough collapse of the two-thousand-years tradition of substantial ontology and a complete destroy of the ruling order of the ultra-perceptual intellectual substance and an absolute disruption of the hard core of substantial ontology. The perceptual-living ontology gives a scientific answer to the ontology problem about "what is human" and correctly solves the values problem about "how to deal with people". The western traditional hominology seeks the base of why human can be human from the external of the human, thus the human is situated in a subordinate situation and is dominated by the physical properties substance, the divinity substance and the rational substance which are out of the human being. Marx's answer of "what is human" is:the base why human can be human is the human perceptual livings activities themselves. Thus the answer to "how to deal with people" is "people oriented". The Marx's ontology realm shows that it does not need the substances outside the human being to confirm the human-being existence, does not need the subjects out of the human being to regulate the development process for human being and does not need credit the greatness and nobleness of human being to the physical properties substance, the divinity substance and the rational substance. The status, value and dignity of human do not require the God's security, which directly shows that the human society and the history should and must take the human being as the basis. The emergence of the so-called "material first", "god first", "monarchy first", "capital first" and so on are all performances of putting cart before the horse."Why people oriented can be reality?" As is known to us that the western humanism tradition has a long history, it is rich in ideas and has a complete system. However, the abundance of theory is not equal to its maturity. The traditional western hominology didn't solve the problems followed:"In what world can people be oriented?", "What do the'people' of'people oriented' refer to?", "How people can be oriented?", "How to achieve'people oriented'?" and so on. Due to the own shortcomings of the traditional western hominology, the "people oriented" suffered from the same fate:fantasy. Marxist hominology surpasses the fault of the traditional western hominology comprehensively, providing a powerful theoretical weapons of recognizing and rebuilding themselves as well as promoting the "people oriented" to achieve its first historic leap:from escapism to science.There are differences between the theoretical dimension and practical dimension of "people oriented". Classical Marxism is dedicated to understand the "people oriented" in the future ideal society, but the contemporary China promotes the "people oriented" mainly based on the reality, which generate a distinction between the ideal "people oriented" and the realistic "people oriented" and derive another issue that how "people oriented" can achieve "the return from ideality to reality" as well as "the transition from reality to ideality". The birth of Marxist hominology indicates the "people oriented" has a theoretical possibility, however the possibility is not equal to the reality. In the Marx's era, "people-oriented" was not a fantasy, but still an ideal. After Socialism becomes practice from theory, "people oriented" also turns into reality from ideality gradually. But Socialism is a constantly perfected process, the realistic "people oriented" is also a transition process from non-ideal condition to the ideal. Viewed from the practice of Socialism, "people oriented" becomes reality from ideality in the fact level and tends to ideality from reality in the value level gradually, these changes are two aspects of the same progress. At present, China is still in the primary stage of Socialism which will last a long time, and still far away from the ideal "people oriented" society that Marx and Engels have envisaged. The distance is also the gap between realistic "people oriented" and the ideal "people oriented". Contemporary China should promote "people oriented" to become reality from all aspects, including material conditions, political foundation, system security, ecological conditions, cultural environment and so on. At the same time, we should push "people oriented" from reality to ideality by improving the level of "people oriented" continuously. The practices of "people oriented" in Socialist countries are a unity of "the return from ideality to reality" and "the transition from reality to ideality" as well as a unity of "ideality actualization" and "actuality idealization", which realized the second historic leap of "people oriented"."What is the ultimate pursuit of'people oriented'?" Marxism considers the Communism as "a social form whose basic principle is the full and free development of each individual," to achieve "the full and free development of each individual" is its ultimate concern. It is the supreme ideal to get a free individuality based on the free and full development of each individual. If we say that respecting human freedom rights and promoting human development are the basic meanings of "people oriented", then "the free and full development of each individual" is a synonym of "taking everyone as the basis", "taking everyone as the basis" just means "achieving free and full development of each individual". Now that realizing "the free and full development of each individual" is the ultimate pursuit of the future Communism, then "taking everyone as the basis" must be the supreme pursuit and the highest state of "people oriented". "People oriented" must lay down in everyone, but not in individual. "Taking everyone as the basis" is completely heterogeneous from "taking individual as the basis". "Taking everyone as the basis" is neither individualism nor a holism proposition, but an absolute collectivism proposition and is the maximum features and completion forms of the collectivism. It is only the Communist society that can be the society which "takes everyone as the basis". Presently, "taking everyone as the basis" has not been reality, however, it is no longer an irrealistic illusion. The realization of Communist society means the implementation of "taking everyone as the basis", but not the accomplishment of it. "Taking everyone as the basis" has never been and will never be a finished fact, it can not be achieved completely and comprehensively. It will be ever-lasting and always on the way.
Keywords/Search Tags:Scientific Outlook on Development, People Oriented, Ontology, Meta-Philosophy, Take Everyone as the Basis
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