Polya’ s table of “How to Solve It” puts together in the several decades of teaching and scientific research work by Polya,an American mathematician and mathematics educator.The table gives the general methods,which are understanding the problem,devising a plan,carrying out the plan and looking back,for solving mathematical problems.One of the goals of the elementary school mathematics teaching is training the student to have the preliminary innovation spirit and practice ability through lively mathematics problem-solving activities to fully develop the students’ emotional attitude and general ability.This thesis,which includes four parts,studies the application of Polya’s chart of “How to Solve It” in the teaching of mathematics problem-solving in primary school.The first part,which introduces the background of study and research significance,summarizes the current situation of studies both at home and abroad about the thought of Polya’s problem solving and the applications of Polya’s table in the mathematics problem-solving teaching of primary school by using literature analysis.The second part investigates the current situation of mathematics of primary school students by the questionnaire and test paper based on Polya’s table of “How to Solve It ”,analyses the difference of the students’ ability to solve problems and the error of the test in understanding the problem,devising a plan,carrying out the plan and looking back respectively,and makes the statistics and classification of the investigation result.In the third part,we put forward the problem-solving strategy of elementary school mathematics and illustrate with examples.Understanding the problem needs to strengthen the cultivation of students’ reading ability,attach importance to the teaching of concept and formula.Devising a plan should focus on cultivating the students’ holistic thinking,and emphasize the awareness of thinking about the question in different aspects.Carrying out the plan needs to improve the ability to compute and number sense of students.We emphasize the primary school cooperation and the habit of reviewing the process of solving problem in looking back.The fourth part gives two examples of how to guide students to overcome difficulty of problem-solving by using Polya’s table of “How to Solve It”.One is about the teaching of "fractional multiplication",which is compared with thetraditional model and the teaching design based on Polya’s table of “How to Solve It”.The other one is about the application.This study suggests that teachers use Polya’s table of“How to Solve It”to solve problems in the teaching.It not only can effectively promote students’ mathematics knowledge accumulation and improve the ability of problem solving,can also be effective to guide the students’ independent study and inspire them to independently think,actively explore,develop their creative ability,cultivate and improve their maths. |