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Human Nature And Politics

Posted on:2010-08-23Degree:DoctorType:Dissertation
Country:ChinaCandidate:Q C ZhouFull Text:PDF
GTID:1116360275958569Subject:Marxist philosophy
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Politics in fact is people's special method in seeking the benefit, is simultaneously to utilize the political authority to advocate and maintain some style of human life. Its premise concealed is that the life style of some class should be considered to conform best with human's life, that's to say, some class of people are human. This inevitably causes an examination to human nature. So, the relations between the human nature and the politics become the basic question of the political philosophy, which has continuously been neglected. Since the political philosophy being, the political thinkers of different times all discussed the political rules, subjects and goals from the angle of human nature, but they have not proposed explicitly that the human nature should own the foundation status in politics, not elaborated determinedly or consciously politics, political thoughts and political system.based on the human nature. In socialist countries, because the human nature and humanitarianism are always thought to belong to bourgeoisie's ideology and repelled in the political research and practice because they are proposed explicitly by the bourgeoisie thinkers.thus the socialist countries and the political party losed their word power in the domain of the human nature, the human rights and humanitarianism. However, since the political life is an important constituent of human life, and politics is an important dimension to affect human life, only politics to people is too important to be neglected.The basic question to politics is nothing but human benefit distribution, which causes the question that who should get what benefit, or which class has human natural disposition, thus should obtain the priority.This is what the political validity depends on. Human nature decides politics and different human nature views cause different political views.Therefore, in essence, politics is actually to confirm and safeguard the life style of some class.Whose life style is right, suitable, or whose life is the genuine human life? Therefore,the human natural disposition becomes the political basic starting point.The relations between people and politics have two aspects, one is of the human nature and the politics, to discuss the relations from human itself,which focuses on that all human activities are launched by the human nature realization; Human development simultaneously is the productive forces development, also the society's development.The other is of the economy and the politics. Theoretically or practically, it is an apect of the relations between the human and his objects, but not all, because human objects include human itself and"he"in life, but also include the natural objects, the economy is only one of them.But, because the economy is the foundation of the human survival and the development, in other words,the human is impossibly realistic without material,the relations between the human and its objects mainly refers to that of the human and the things in Marxism.On this dimension, the relations between economy and politics,namely how to gain the life object naturally become the main question in the political life.Marx's political philosophy discusses the human and the politics on this dimension, but takes the human and the object unification as the premise.Therefore Marx's materialism,as the theory of human being's liberation and development, is one kind of complete shape of the humanitarianism.But Marx's successor has neglected this point.In other words, elaborating the relations between the human and the political from human own, is always a domain which Marxism politics philosophy has neglected after Marx. That causes the human separation from human objects, neglect of human own development and existence, causes the"thing controls human"similarly in the capitalist society and the return to the materialism against human which Marx had criticized.Because of the special national reality and the Soviet Union ideological influence, China's political science circles launches the political research from human's objects, with the human nature outside the Chinese scholars and statesmen's vision. The human nature, the human rights, and the humanitarianism are always the forbidden areas to Marxism researchers in China. Since the reform and open policy, on the one hand, practices makes the human's development a more and more vital and urgent problem for the Chinese society to have to solve, and on the other hand the thinkers and the statesmen gradually overcome the dogmatism and understand Marx's political philosophy comprehensively and thorough, which result in that the human's question highlights day by day in Chinese political life and humanist has then become elementary theory, in chain inevitably cause examination and reform to the traditional political thoughts and system. Therefore, seeking the regular understanding from the disussion of the political thinkers in history about the relations between human nature and politics to provide the theoretical support to the political system reform, and the theoretical proof for the Chinese politics civilization construction, has become now the Chinese politics philosophy researcher's basic task.Certainly, it is not inevitable for this theorical discussion and plan to involve the political thinking and system construction in detail, but to propose the theorical analysis to the question existing in people's political life, and to provide theoretical or directional proof for the political life construction in remoulding human's mainbody status in politics.In detail, this article includes the following aspects:In essence, Chinese traditional political philosophy all discusses the human.How to be the human is always the main question which the ancient thinkers discussed. Buddhism, Taoism, and Legalism had different views to the human, but all distinguishes the human from the birds and beasts .In the relation between the human nature and politics they had the same logical way: evolve the political system principles and subjects from human's natural disposition.Moreover, in Chinese ancient political philosophy, the human nature was not only the political beginning, principles and goal, also the basic standard for the political fit or unfit quality.Only being human marked able to own the political rights and authority.The relations between human nature and politics in the western classical political philosophy are discussed then.In ancient time, most of the Western thinkers regarded rationality as human nature,and only those who were considered to have had rationality could be allowed to enjoy the political rights.And the rationality is often sumed up as the knowledge.Therefore, kinds of political thought judged a person's perfect degree by how much knowledge he had, on which his political authority and rights depended.The hierarchical system was built on the degrees of the rationality or the knowledge,so that the theory of the best rulers came.Modern West philosophy thought that everybody is equal in the human nature ,and,at least theoretically,everybody may become the ruler. Then the political hierarchical system inevitably ended because its theorical basis in the classical political philosophy was gone.The theory the best ruler was replaced by how to choose the ruler, a complete procedure.The political science started here.The development of this theory caused the political authority to be deprived of mystery inevitably and the political life to be common.In other words, the modern western politics depended on the idea that everybody is equal in human nature.What was the human nature was a secondary question.Marxist political philosophy also took human nature transformation as its premise and foundation. Marx thought that human being of the reality is the entity of human being and its objects.Once separated, the human being is no longer of the reality, and the objects no longer for human being.Therefore, how to realize the unification of the human and its objects, and make human being that of the reality, became the basic question of Marxist political thought.Marx and his successors began their discussion about the human nature and politics here.In the discussion, Marx angled the objects of human being to discuss the actuality of human being while Marxists afterwards mainly did the objects not of human being, thus deviated from the political philosophy which Marx founded.This is the basic cause of the argument about humanitarianism and materialism in Marxism. Marxists of China had also been influenced by this deviation.The relations between human nature and politics are dialectical.In the history, every political thinker are embark from the human nature established his building of political theory and system on the foundation of human nature, different only in understanding to it.And one's understanding lied in his different living condition. In other words, the so-called human nature is one thinker's affirmatiom to his own living condition and style, which are ideologized and systemized to have made politics. In light of this, human nature decides politics, and the political validity lies in its sustainment to the human nature and the human's main body status.On the other hand, because the human and the human's objects are unified, and politics is the most powerful tool to control the human's objects, the political authority influences a person's exsitence and life,sometimes decisively by controlling the objects that one's life depends on, which means sometimes politics has the decisive function to the human nature development.Therefore, the relations between human nature and politics are dialectical.To keep politics under human nature, and realize the virtuous interaction of human nature and politics the foundation of the human's development and the political development, to establish the politics conforming to the human nature development.The following is about human nature and politics under the linguistic environment in contemporary China. Marxism is the basic guiding ideology, and Marx's theory about human being of the reality is the theorical guide and practical foundation to Chinese politics philosophy construction and the political system reform.To make Chinese politics conform to the development of human being of the reality, depends on the improvement and the enhancement to Chinese's quality and China's political system. Perfecting human nature accompanies with doing the political system.To improve the human's quality through the political system, establish the high-qualitied political life by people of high quality, and realize the virtuous interaction of human nature and the politics to make communal development and promotion, is the basic duty of Chinese political reform.
Keywords/Search Tags:Human nature, Politics, Relations between human nature and politics, Rationality, Selfishness, Humanitarianism, Human being of the reality, Marxism, Chinese linguistic environment, Political reform
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