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The Renovation Of Electric Power Market: International Comparison And Advancement Of China

Posted on:2006-05-25Degree:DoctorType:Dissertation
Country:ChinaCandidate:Z Z JingFull Text:PDF
GTID:1116360155954617Subject:World economy
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Electricity industry is a basic profession that has economy of scale, it has the characteristic of public utility and nature monopoly. Base on he characteristic of electricity industry, every country of the world electricity industry system was mostly state and vertical integrated monopoly pattern in the initial stage of electricity industry development. This system suited the demand of socialization production at that time, it play important role in promoting electricity industry speedy develop and satisfying national economy demand. But this system also has obvious system shortage and it brought on competition system shortage. Based on electricity globalization, regarding innovation of electricity science and technology as assurance, in Intensely cry for smashing monopoly come from all circles of society, under impelling of international organization, Since the 1978, especially the 1990s, many country and area have practiced electricity markets renovation early or late, explore the ways of configuring electric power resources with electricity markets. These days, majority of countries of the world have performed markets renovation of electricity industry or are performing except the few country of Africa and Asia. Performing markets renovation to electricity profession come from studying of economics to nature monopoly. Some professions come true increase of benefit along with expanding of scale and extending of scope of the enterprise production and degression of unit cost. These professions have the inside trend that develop to scale economy, scope economy. This kind of monopoly whose formation because of nature factor and industry oneself characteristics and not due to the reason of law and government call the nature monopoly. There are technique economic factors that contact closely between the development of nature monopoly profession and monopoly operation, it have decided that nature monopoly profession perform monopoly management is certain. There are disadvantageous facets that the nature monopoly profession practices monopoly management to the social as well as advantageous the facets. Net allocation effect is general effect that the positive effect that nature monopoly industries make through perform monopoly operation to reduce average cost knock off the negative effect that creating loss result in. Deciding the nature monopoly superior or inferior, should combine the concrete characteristic of natural monopoly profession and analyses the sign of monopoly net allocation effect that natural monopoly profession is living specially period and special condition, this is a appraising standard of effect of monopoly and anti-monopoly. With the development of modern science and technology and the theory of economy, especially the development of new technique of electric power and the breakthrough of open theory of network research, on condition of management of separating the transmission and arrangement business that pertain the nature monopoly from the generation and sale business that pertain the non-natural monopoly can ensure safe and steady running of produce and supply of power. Generation, transmission, arrangement and sale are separated into four independent operations. On the segment of generation and sale, monopoly is broken and government regulation is relaxed properly, contest mechanism is worked in, market rules and the systems of market trade are established, competitive power markets are established and make competition sufficient, market power is eliminated or weakened. But on the segment of transmission and arrangement as the nature monopoly territory, monopoly operation is performed, the government practice valid regulation, thereby it can operate normally under the supervision of government. This is the widespread disciplinarian of renovation of electricity markets every country in the world. There is problem of degree if drawing contest mechanism in the realm of non-natural monopoly of electricity profession, we should prevent immoderacy contest. Watching electricity profession from demand of technique, scale benefit and validation of competition and the development of national economy, the splitting to electric power industry is not more small more good. The basic structure of electric power market is that the oligopoly of generation and the natural monopoly of Power Grid coexist. The practices of electric power market renovation every country in the world make known below two aspects, the first is that After electricity profession implemented vertical separation and regrouping, vertical manipulation power of electricity market has been restrained due to eliminate the benefit foundation that monopoly segment implemented vertical market power, whereas because of particularity of electricity industry horizontal manipulation power of competition segment is not open along with market and it is not eliminate along with the separation of generation enterprise and entry of new manufacturer of competition, especially on the condition of shortage of electric power supply, market manipulation action of generation manufacturer still exists. The second is that market power factor is the ratio of market price to average cost in market,it also is significant guide line to analyze competition efficiency of electric power market, every country in the world is short of study to the relation between marketpower factor and the number and composing of competition main body and the electricity quantity of competition and competition rule in electric power market, furthermore has not considered the configuration problem of market power factor in the structure design of electric power market. These open out the existing of market power after electric power market renovation and the lack of competition efficiency, it can't prove the renovation of electric power market is defeated and also can't prove the administration intervention of government should enhance, it only indicated the particularity and extremes complexity of electric power market renovation, and also showed that global electric power market has still being in the process continuously exploration and study. Weakening or eliminating market power and enhancing competition efficiency of electric power market is important subject after renovation of electricity industry. New Liberalism economy theory is economics foundation of the electric power market renovation, as well as characteristic practices of electric power market renovation every country in the world have further enriched and developed New Liberalism economy theory. The countries that perform electricity market renovation all have set down the target of renovation of electricity markets combine the situation of homeland, which accord with tactic orientation of homeland in international market. It can generalize the following three aspects, the first is ensuring credibility and length and sufficient energy sources supply and reasonable standard of environment. The second is promoting electricity industry to increase efficiency and decrease electricity price and ameliorate management and service with breaking monopoly and drawing contest mechanism, make public gain benefit from it. The third is increasing efficiency of nation entirety economy through decreasing electric power cost, thereby increasing ability of international competition. But because that development phase is different between developed country and developing country, there is obvious difference in selecting target of electricity renovation. In developed country, on condition of mature electricity markets and electric power supply is bigger than demand, emphases of renovation is supervising price inspiringly in order to ameliorate management performance of corporation and increase running efficiency of industry and decrease price and provide multi-service. In developing country, because of facing the tasks of developing electricity and promoting economy developing and implementing the target of society development, emphases of renovation is ensuring electric power system secure operation and attracting new investment to support electric power profession developing. There are four basic approaches to actualize the target of electric power market renovation, which was mentioned above, the first is transforming pattern of exchange, i.e. practicing privatization to state-owned capital of electric powerindustry, selling it to stock people or foreign company. The second is transforming organization structure of electricity profession, i.e. transforming quondam vertical integrated organization structure that was regarded as every segment make up of a system that can't separate into current organization structure that can separate. Can separate electric power plant and terminal segment of sale from Power Grid, thereby practicing liberalization. The third is transforming mode of resource configuration, its objective is establishing a competition market frame, configuring electric power resource through electric power market, i.e. the mode of resource configuration is market. The fourth is transforming the content and fashion of supervision, i.e. transforming the supervision that administration is primary into the supervision that management according to low is primary. The progress degree of the privatization and markets of electric power industry is different due to the difference of the circumstance of every country in the world, it can be usually divided into three type, the first is exploring type whose degree of liberalism and privatization is higher, such as the United States, England etc. The second is middle type, such as Japanese electric power industry had already been basic privatization after World War II and only proceed limiting liberalism in recent years, each big electric power company introduce in independent power plant based on practicing the vertical integrated monopoly continually. The third is reliable type, such as France, continually execute state owned and local government owned management system of vertical integrated monopoly, not to implement liberalism and privatization. In the country that has already been privatization, these days the main task of the renovation is to practices the markets, to relax control and to draw in competition mechanism. In the country that hasn't already been privatization, some adopt thoroughly separating generation, transmission, arrangement and sale, completely drawing in competition mechanism at the realm of generation and sale, there are also some country draw in competition mechanism firstly in the realm of sale before separating electric power plant from Power Grid. The emphases of electric power market renovation are as follows: firstly establishing competition electric power market. It is aggregation of purchasers and bargainer, which operate each other, make trade of electric energy to be possible. Trade center of electric power market is the institution that takes charge of electric power market operation. It is the locale where purchasers and bargainer complete wholesale and trade of electric power, it also is the locale where the main body of market carry out competition. Which organization structure and mode of competition is adopted is more efficient is a subject which needs continuously practicing. Secondly fashioning price system of market. In the segment of competition i.e. generation and sale practicing market price, in the segment ofmonopoly i.e. transmission and arrangement practicing controlled price base on bound cost principle. Developed country electric power was affluence and the price was higher before renovation, after renovation the price decrease generally, the country that the price was lower before renovation, which majority is developing country, the price have a certain extent increase mostly after renovation. Thirdly instituting effective supervision system. Electric power supervision is that electric power supervision organization that government set up progress regulating indirectly and controlling directly to electric power enterprise and its trade action in electric power market, is also administration action that carry out optimized configuration of electric power resource. The general direction of electric power supervision system renovation is with electric power market perfecting gradually and exerting of market function to distinguish competition segment and nature monopoly segment, to relax economic supervision for competition segment, to enhance supervision to network enter of nature monopoly segment and sureness and universal service etc non-economy content. Transforming protected supervision to encouraged supervision. In the process of concrete operation of electric power market renovation, the universal method of every country in the world is that government is dominant and lawmaking is first and design is collectivity and to implement by step. Electric power crisis of California in the U.S. and the accident i.e. large-scale power cut of the United States and Canada is the misplay of electric power market renovation, it has brought great influence to electric power development in the world and electric power market renovation, we should suck up lesson from it. There are following three aspects of lessons, firstly market mechanism play important role in boosting effective allocation of electric power resource is incontrovertible, but only depending on market mechanism is insufficient, there must be relevant supervise. Secondly we should combine the nature regulation and economic regulation with principle of market economy. Thirdly the electric power market renovation must insure the safety and stabilize of power network. Although there have been electric power crisis of California of America and renovation mistakes such as large-scale power cut of the United States and Canada, renovation of the electric power market made electric power industrial efficiency of many country enhanced consumedly, the past situation of supply falls short of demand of electric power was change thoroughly, the price falling largely, service quantity was ameliorated obviously too. The practices of foreign electric power market renovation have reference meaning to the renovation of China electric power market is doubtless, but never can rote and must combine situation of China. History has already proved for many times that if copy the experience and the mode of other country, on one hand...
Keywords/Search Tags:International
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