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Research On The Organizational Structures Of Two Major American Political Parties

Posted on:2009-03-14Degree:DoctorType:Dissertation
Country:ChinaCandidate:W H QianFull Text:PDF
GTID:1116360245473272Subject:Scientific Socialism and the international communist movement
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The two major organizations of American political parties are formally from the federal system.And gradually the parties were given organizational structure renewal under the modernization of society and the power in turn.The organizational structure is one of the important contents about political party.In past,structural research is a major facet of organizational research.In the research of the organizational structures of two major American political parties,the visual angle of inspection is mainly structural configuration.There are two representative viewpoints among the acedemic circle,that is pyramid model and strata model.The the main argument of the first view is:the local potical organizations or the clubs are in the lowest level, the county level committees occupy above it, state committees are above the county committees, and the national committees of parties are in the pyramid peak and authority now shifts from first floor to peak.The second view argues that pyramid does not represent the rank system in the organizations, on the contrary,the rank system does not exist in fact.It is more appropriate to express the organizational structures with the strata system.The system method should be used to research the important questions of organizational structures.The organizational structure shape research is only one of them.The other questions of research also include some influential factors,such as main structural characteristics, structural rationality,and existing flaws.First,two major party organizational structures come under the many kinds of factors.In exterior,there are many kinds of influences,such as the political party culture, state law, the model of candidate-center, changes of other party organizational structures,mutual influences between two organizations,and the voters request the direct democracy.In internal, there are two kinds of influences,one is the inner-party reform of party electoral pattern,the other is the requests of the self-transformation of political parties.Next,the structural characteristics can be understood from two aspects:on the one hand,the overall characteristic resembles the pyramid shape,on the other hand,the organizational structure has many kinds of concrete characteristics:the boss and party machine phenomenon have already abated,the comprehensive political party platforms,the organizational disciplines lacking punishment,the different primary patterns in the inner-party elections,the organizational conformity between national organizations and state organizations and the race stratum differences among the two party members.Once more,the structural rationality is also worth inspecting.The organizational structures of two major American political parties displaying such shape ,the main force comes from the fundamental political system with separation of three kinds of powers.The authority naturally is dispersed and receives the legal restriction.The voters approve the organizational structures under this kind of system. Each kind of strength in the parties can maintain the cooperation under these structures.The organizational structures at any time also have relative unreasonable questions.This needs the continual readjustment of the structures.Fourth,flaws are existing in the structures.There are two main performances:the dispersing authority has restricted the organizational whole coordinated ability.The laxing discipline and lacking the long-term goals make the functions of political parties with the insufficient modernity expressionsThe paper is composed of five parts, i.e. its five chapters respectively.The first chapter is about historical evolution of the two political party organizations in America.In this chapter the evolution of political party organizations before the two-party system formed,the organization mechanism renewal of the two political parties after civil war,as well as the consummation of the two political party organizations since 20 century were introduced in different time period.The origin of the political parties,the formation and the consummation of the two political parties were elaborated according to the above time period.The second chapter is about the strength dispersed of two national organizations,the national representative conventions of two political parties are the symbolic of highest authority,political party national committees are the symbolic core,congress political party organizations with the national committee parallel and governor association were narrated in this chapter,and reality is pointed out that the organizations of two political parties beyond national level is not the concentration of power.The third chapter, taking the state and its following local political party organizations as objects, carried on the outline to the state party organizations.And then representative convention of democratic party in California, regulation of central committee of democratic party, subordinate state level organizations of democratic party,the organizations of political party in state assembly, and the organizations of two political parties in yolo county of California and the specific running style of different organizations were analyzed.In the fourth chapter, based on what the competition measures should two major party organizations take, the key research was put on spatial development and election methods renovating of two political party organizations.In the fifth chapter, the key analysis was put on organizational structure characteristics of two political parties, including authority structure within the organization of political parties, the primary organization features and organizational modernity.It was pointed out in this chapter the inner authorities of two-party organization had non-vertical feature,and thus the future work direction in the organization constructing.In theory utilization,based on the fundamental theories of political party,the study of the American political parties in this paper mainly includes the concepts of the political party, the functions of the political party, the types of the political party and the systems of the political party, etc.On the other hand, take the organization theory as the auxiliary method.The study of the organizations of two political parties is very significant from the points of practical view.The main performance lies in the following aspects:Firstly,the reasonable summary to organizational structure evolution can be helpful to the people further clearly recognizing the organization survey and the essence of the American incumbent party.Secondly,the study of the structure rationality can contribute to the people understanding the facts of two party organizations.Thirdly,the study of the function modernity of the American political parties can give help to the people knowing its structural flaws.And provides the beneficial enlightenment for the organizational construction of the CCP.This paper also has the certain theory contributions:it carrys on the comprehensive analysis of party organizational structures from the system angle and opens up the research connotation of party organizational structures.It does the fundmental work for the academic circles to deepen the research of the American incumbent party theory.The main study methods in this paper include Marxism dialectical materialism and historical materialism method,historical analytic method,induction comparison method,system analytic method and example analytic method.
Keywords/Search Tags:the two major organizational structures of American political parties, the national organizations of political parties, the state and its following local political party organizations, the structural characteristics of political party organizations
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