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Research On Jade Culture Of Prehistoric Age, The Three Dynasties, Qin And Han Dynasties

Posted on:2012-08-23Degree:DoctorType:Dissertation
Country:ChinaCandidate:C LiFull Text:PDF
GTID:1225330371950966Subject:Chinese classical literature
Abstract/Summary:PDF Full Text Request
Chinese ancient jade culture is an important part of Chinese culture. Scholars through the ages devoted much attention to study the style and feature of Chinese culture by researching ancient jade articles. This paper discusses the cultural connotation of jade articles systematically based on prehistoric age, the Three Dynasties, Qin and Han dynasties. This paper includes an introduction, four chapters and a conclusion. Four chapters are represented in chronological sequence, which are jade culture of prehistoric age, Xia and Shang dynasties, Zhou dynasty, Qin and Han dynasties.In the introduction, it represents the scope and condition of Chinese ancient jade culture research, and the importance of this paper.Chapter one represents the jade culture of prehistoric age. Firstly, it represents the beginning of jade culture. As Chinese ancient jade culture has long historical origins, it is no exaggeration to say that it has a history of ten thousand years. We consider that the beginning of jade article was in prehistoric age, while primitive people were using stone implements, they recognized jade, and departed it from stone. Early jade articles of China mainly existed at the Liaohe River valley of northeast, the Huanghe River valley of central plains and the lower reaches along the Changjiang River valley of south China. The three areas grew in order of priority, but didn’t influence each other and had no relationship of adoption; the stuffs were beautiful and smooth which were called beauty of stone; the implements were mostly decorations and tools. Taken jade as the symbol of beauty and used it to beautify life was the early social function as well as the main characteristic of the beginning of jade.Secondly, it represents the main culture sites and jade articles.At last, it represents the culture characteristics of this period. We consider that the jade articles of middle and late Neolithic Age were mostly yushenqi used to offer sacrifices to gods by wizards, which were mediums for communication between human being and gods; wizards were owners and appliers of yushenqi, who offered sacrifices to gods, and had special influence on jade culture history; primitive worship began to exist, which were totem and ancestor worship. The characteristics of jade dragon, jade birds and jade articles of gouyun of Hong-Shan culture have been represented. We consider that the mould of jade dragon originated from comprehension of pig and snake, and its symbolic significance and religinal functions have been discussed; ancient people took birds as massagers of gods for the ability of flying, for whom being taken as symbol of worship; the mould and functions of jade articles of gouyun have been represented, we consider that its mould originated from clouds, its utensils were birds and which used as the medium for communication. The characteristics of yubi, yucong, and yuyue of Liang-Zhu culture have been represented. The functions of yubi have been researched, and we consider that it had been used for funerals and as a medium; we have researched the origination, functions and symbolic significance of shenhui of yucong, and consider its mould represents the linking up of heaven and earth, its function is yushenqi which is a medium for communication; the graves and mould of yuyue have been researched, and we consider it stands for military power.Chapter two represents the jade culture of Xia and Shang dynasties. Firstly, it represents the jade articles and culture characteristics of Xia dynasty. We consider that jade culture of Xia dynasty has three characteristics of simple craft, significance of jade weapons and the beginning of sacrificial vessels.Secondly, it represents the jade culture of Shang dynasty. Jade articles and cultural connotation have been represented. Jade culture of Shang dynasty has original relationship with jade culture of Hong-Shan, Liang-Zhu, Long-Shan, and Xia dynasty; jade culture of Shang dynasty continued the conceptions of gods which began from prehistoric age, jade animals of Fuhao grave also have functions of primitive religion, which are not only symbols of wealth and status, but also objects of totem worship and symbols of gods, as well as having the function of medium; sacrificial vessels such as yucong, yubi, yugui, yuhuang, yuge, yuyue, yuqi, yugui and so on, represent characteristics of monarchical power and ranks; we could see the social customs and proprieties by studying the hair style, clothes and sitting postures of jade persons; jade bisexual person is symbol of reproduction worship; jade persons represent the transition of worship from gods to human beings and the inevitable trend of striding from lower level to higher level of primitive religion.Chapter three represents jade culture of Zhou dynasty. Firstly, it represents the jade articles of Xizhou and Dongzhou. Secondly, jade culture characteristics of Zhou dynasty have been represented from three parts of sacrificial vessels, decorations and funeral jade articles.Sacrificial vessels of Zhou dynasty have been researched by discussing liuqi and liurui recorded in Zhouli, the varieties, uses and ceremonies of yugui and yuzhang have been studied.Jade of decorations have been researched. It represents the decoration fashions of Zhou dynasty from three parts of head ornaments, sundries and yupei according to Shijing; while in Chunqiu and Zhanguo, society changed rapidly, Confucius advanced the theory of yude, related the specific properties of jade with gentlemen, entrusted characteristics of human beings to jade, made it the representation of fine virtue and personality, which had significant influence on traditional culture.Funeral jade articles have been researched. On the minds of people of Zhou dynasty, jade is the essence of heaven and earth, funeral with jades could make spirit always alive; the using and functions of yubi in funeral, jade on coffin and hanyu have been represented.Chapter four represents the jade culture of Qin and Han dynasties. Firstly, it represents the jade articles and characteristics of Qin dynasty.Secondly, it represents the jade culture of Han dynasty. It represents the jade articles, and its characteristics from three parts of conceptions of using jade, funeral jade articles and the transition of sacrificial vessels.The conception of using jade articles has been researched. Jade culture of Han dynasty had been influenced by both Confucianism and Taoism, represented the characteristic of combination of ceremonial jade articles with changsheng, shengxian conceptions. The influence of Confucianism reflected the inheritance of yude theory and the ranks of using jade articles. And the influence of Taoism reflected the using of funeral articles. The combination of Confucianism with Taoism characteristic reflected the conception of the using of both dao and qi. It also has the characteristic of lucky culture. Lucky jade articles of Han dynasty are mainly yubi with lucky words, gangmao and yanmao, yubixie, sifangshenshou, bears and so on, which have the characteristics of religion, culture of Chu state, custom philosophic value.Funeral jade articles have been researched. The conception of funeral jade articles of Han people inherited the conceptions of Zhou dynasty, but no longer submitted in the power of gods, besides contended for the initiative to put themselves into the world of gods, and took the wealth and status along with them, because of the development of economic and the influence of Confucianism and Taoism.The transition of sacrificial vessels has been researched. The using of sacrificial vessels of Han dynasty inherited the using system of Zhou dynasty, and sacrificial vessels still played important roles in ceremonies and proprieties, but changed in varieties. The main sacrificial vessels of Han dynasty are yubi and yugui. Yubi were used extensively, but the quantity of which decreased compared with previous dynasties. Yucong and yuzhang were hardly been seen, which almost stopped producing. Yuhuang declined wholly at mid of Xihan, which were all used as decorations except a few for funerals. Yuhuan, yujue, jade dragons and jade tigers, which were used as sacrificial vessels at previous dynasties, were hardly found in Han dynasty, some of which could be found frequently, but used for decoration which were no longer sacrificial vessels.It has been summarized and refined in conclusion, and deficiencies have been advanced as well as future efforts.
Keywords/Search Tags:jade, culture, prehistoric age, the Three Dynasties, Qin dynasty, Han dynasty
PDF Full Text Request
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