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Study On The Discourse Mode Of Literary Criticism Of Chinese Marxism

Posted on:2014-01-27Degree:DoctorType:Dissertation
Country:ChinaCandidate:S B FanFull Text:PDF
GTID:1225330467485019Subject:Literature and art
Abstract/Summary:PDF Full Text Request
China’s Marxist literary criticism, first of all, is a form of theoretical discourse, so the analysis of the development of the discourse models of the Chinese Marxist literary critical theories from the perspective of discourse is an indispensable theoretical perspective,which can help us obtain an overall grasping of the features of the paradigm of China’s Marxist literary criticism. Discourse is not a simple process of speech,which has its own historical context, way of thinking and practical function. The discourse, in the process of speech, through discourse text, discourse practice and social practice, transforms ideas, guides social practice, and so as to influence the historical process. So the discourse can have a significant impact on reality. The discourse patterns is the basic category, value principle and framework of thought of the discourse speech which are formed in certain cultural traditions and social history, a basic assumption of the cultural meaning by its own construction way. The theoretical study concerned discourse, formed the theory of "discourse" research paradigm. The theory of "discourse" research paradigm of using discourse analysis method, pays attention to the speech process of the dicourse and its reflection of the thoughts and mental state, the interaction between the context and speech,the practice function of discourse how to affect and change the reality and the future of the social life. This dissertation, focusing on the discourse patterns of China’s Marxist literary criticism, researches the construction, characteristics and historical influence of the mainstream discourse patterns in literary criticism in different historical periods since "May4th", trying to analyze the deep reasons of the transformation of literary critical discourses. This dissertation attempts to achieve the following three goals:firstly, to make a historical carding of the discourse pattern evolution of China’s Marxist literary critical theories, to clarify the formation, characteristics and influence of every type of discourse patterns, and to presents the overall features and the internal logic of the development of Chinese Marxist literary critical discourses; secondly, to explore the discourse-generating mechanism in the study of discourse patterns, namely, in the study of how the interaction between power and knowledge, between power and body and between power and politics makes impacts on China’s modern history in such three ways as the discourse texts, discourse practices and social practices; thirdly, to summarize the features of Marxist literary critical discourses, so as to provide empirical and theoretical references for the present construction of Chinese form of Marxist literary critical theories.This dissertation, by researching the history of literary critical discourses and the history of literary ideological trends, aims to make a comprehensive analysis and summary about the different modes of the enlightenment discourses, revolutionary discourses and people’s discourses. Besides the introduction and conclusion, the body is composed of four parts.The first chapter studies China’s Marxist literary criticism of the enlightenment discourse pattern. This pattern had endowed Chinese literary criticism with the significance of social enlightenment, thus making literary criticism an enlightening practice dedicated to social changes, It showed that literary critics take a radical-reform standpoint and the long-term fighting strategy. It formed a complete sign system and knowledge of Marxist literary criticism of enlightenment. The beginning and the end of the enlightenment discourse pattern is the break-out of "May4th" movement in1919and the final journal of The Sun in July1928.The enlightenment discourse introduce the perspective of Marxist literary criticism, and put forward the aesthetic and historical criteria for literary criticism, thus producing a new social and historical critical methods. The discourse was a kind of proletariat enlightenment discourse, the inheritance and development of the early bourgeois enlightenment discourse of literary criticism in the early stage of "May4th" new culture movement. The enlightenment discourse had three prominent characteristics:first, under the standard of "for life", it attached great importance to the reader’s responses and the social enlightening function of literature, promoted the reform of modern literary style and unearths the contents about social life reflected by literature. Second,"true" was regarded as an important principle of realistic creation methods accomplished by "for life" as the ideal and the end-result of modern and contemporary realistic literary brilliance. Furthermore, the uplift of literary subject consciousness strengthened the consciousness of reforming social literature. A literary critical discourse in the mainstream position tended to guide the literary style of the era on the whole, thus forming a profound historical influence: first, the radical completion of the style reform established the direction of literary creation and criticism of national character’s remolding enlightenment, the creation of the popularization of orientation; second, China’s modern literature historically chose the realistic creation method, making the principle of realism and authenticity the mainstream creation method; furthermore, the uplift of literary subject consciousness carried forward the enlightening spirit of the literary and critical consciousness.The second chapter studies the revolution discourse patterns of Chinese Marxist literary criticism. The revolutionary discourse model gave literary criticism activities the significance of publicizing revolution, turned literary criticism into a kind of social revolution, showed the literary critical theory revolutionary position and policies to mobilize the public, and so formed a complete sign system and knowledge of revolution of Marxist literary criticism. The discourse pattern began in July1928and ended in October1949, the founding of new China. Revolutionary discourse had experienced three stages of development:revolution literature, left-wing literature and war literature (including the Anti-Japanese War and Liberation war literature). The features of the discourse pattern were the revolutionary utilitarianism literary concept, the direction of literary popularization and the realistic creation method. Its positive impacts were as follows:the revolutionary utilitarianism literary concept helped the combination of literature and social revolution, promoting the win-win between the revolution and literature; the direction of literary popularization had accelerated the construction of a new people’s literature; the realistic creation methods fit into traditional Chinese readers’ aesthetic psychology, and expanded the literary map and influence. Its negative effects were as follows:the revolutionary utilitarianism literary concept inappropriately regarded literature as subservient to the politics and canceled the independent status of literature as an artistic form; the absolutization of literature popularization led to the requirement of uniforming literary styles, thus ignoring that literature should be adapted to different groups of readers and enjoy a variety of artistic styles. All sorts of different artistic styles should in the process of competition take advantage of and supplement to each other, so as to form a strongly inclusive yet self-adapting harmonious ecosystem of literature.The third chapter studies the people’s discourse mode of Chinese Marxist literary criticism. The mode endued Chinese literary criticism with the significance of publicizing people’s democracy, making literary criticism an activity dedicated to the cohesion of people and reflecting the legitimacy of the regime, showing a standpoint as a recognition of social reality and a constructing strategy with the literati as the subject, closely linking literature and politics, and forming a complete sign system and knowledge about people of Marxist literary criticism. The formation and development of people’s discourse pattern of China’s Marxist literary criticism was from1949, the founding of the people’s republic of China, to the present. People’s mode of discourse is a new type of power discourse and characterized distinctly in the following three ways:First, it embodied a cultural progressiveness and had the consciousness of cultural criticism. Second, it highlighted the control of cultural leadership and so had the feature of practice. Moreover, since people’s discourse was a social individual discourse, its internal relationship between the social discourse and personal discourse gradually grew more harmonious in struggles. People’s mode of discourse has laid impacts on the literary creation for more than60years, and its historical influences were mainly as follows:first, the concept of focusing on the people in literature has been widely accepted and realism has obtained the mainstream status in literary circle; second, the complexity of the ideology of literature has attracted a wide reflection, and especially the relationship between literature and politics was more rationally viewed; third, the notions of literature are becoming open and diversified, and a public space of literary discourse is gradually established.The fourth chapter reflects the evolution of China’s Marxist literary critical discourse schema, summarizes its pertinence to reality and its characteristics of people’s subjectivity and political utility. Its pertinence to reality has rooted in the tradition of Chinese national cultural psychology, has been determined by the historical and present contexts of modern and contemporary Chinese literary criticism and has been embodied in three aspects:First, the source of literary creation is thought to exist in the author’s life and life is regarded as the inexhaustible source of literary creation. Second, the artistic effects of literary works have been highlighted and it has been emphasized that the whole social effects of the work must be determined by the readers’reading practice. Third, the literary criticism views the reader as the center and attaches great importance to social influences of the work. People’s subjectivity is the characteristic of Chinese Marxist literary criticism and is reflected in the following respects:first, the literary criticism serves the construction of people’s subjectivity; second, the understanding of people’s subjectivity restricts the development of literary criticism; third, the implementation of people’s subjectivity expands the vision of literary criticism. Political utilitarianism is another important characteristic of Chinese Marxist literary criticism. It is determined by Chinese literary tradition of "writings for conveying the truth", the reality that politics is inevitably the focus of attention of society in the era of major social transformations, and the political quality of Marxism. The political utilitarianism is reflected in three aspects:first, politics has become the unconscious of literature and the latter can never avoid the former; second, the notion of literature has profoundly interfered in the real life, and therefore is capable of realizing the political objectives; third, the political discourse influences the literary discourse most profoundly, to such extend as literary criticism need be allied with politics.The dissertation finally draws the conclusion:The national pattern of theoretical discourse is in effect the cultural password of a nation, constructed by the national discourse practice. In the meanwhile theoretical discourse is practical and constructive. Every specific historical period has its own theme of the times. The power struggles produced by literary theoretical discourse focusing on the specific historical themes tend to form a mainstream criticism discourse mode, pushes forward the transformation of literary and the whole social ideological trends, and profoundly influences the social reform and transformation of an era. The Chinese characteristics of China’s Marxist literary critical theoretical discourse are determined by the Chinese revolutionary and constructing practice, and meanwhile the theory as a reaction to the practice, has a far-reaching influence on the development of Chinese history. Under the presentation of the evolution of literary critical discourse patterns lay the conflicts and transformation of different ideas, and the competition and re-organization of various discourses. The research of discourse pattern can expand the horizon of the study of Chinese Marxist literary criticism. In this unique theoretical horizon, the evolution of Chinese Marxist critical discourse presents many previously little-known theoretical views. First, the study on discourse patterns can portray the evolutionary trail of the discourse patterns of Chinese Marxist literary criticism. Second, the employment of discourse patterns can help understand the dialectical relations between "the people’s" and "the personal’s" in People’s literature. Moreover, this research can solve the paradox of authenticity" of realism. In the new era, the construction of China’s Marxist literary critical discourse should keep up with the trend of the times, uphold the people-oriented values of Marxism literary criticism, and be committed to promoting the prosperity of literature and art, the freedom of the people, and the overall progress of society.
Keywords/Search Tags:Marxist Iiteraiy cirticism, Discourse p故tern, The enlightenment discourse, Revolutionary discourse, People’sdiscourse
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