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The Transition Of European Integration Movement After The Failure Of European Defense Community

Posted on:2010-03-01Degree:MasterType:Thesis
Country:ChinaCandidate:D TianFull Text:PDF
GTID:2166360272998635Subject:World History
Abstract/Summary:PDF Full Text Request
Movement of European integration began in the middle of the last century, but the idea of European integration can be traced back to the seventeenth century St. ? Pierre (Saint Pierre ,1658-1743) of the European Union thinking,in his " To the eternal peace to the European memoirs," a book he thought to achieve the purpose of permanent peace in Europe through the establishment of a European Union method. Since Kant, Altiero Spinelli, and other European thinkers have put forward their own ideas on the European Union.Access to modern times the idea of the European Union applies to real practice, on the European continent after World War II experience of countries in the European Union more aware of the importance of European Union, The Hague Conference made European integration, just only the original amount of thinking to achieve a qualitative leap in the accumulation, the Hague Conference unify European thinkings. Europeans should bulid their own European Union, the main idea of the ideology is supranationalism.Europeans initially put more focus on the economic field, but the idea had been changed when the Cold War had broken out, to a large extent of the outbreak of the Cold War not only changed the political ecosystem in Europe, but also blurred the nature view of European integration, the direction of integration began to have erred, Europeans fear of war rapidly accelerate of the integration movement directly from the economic sphere to the political dimension. The Cold War made the countries of Western Europe felt anxiety, in their view, the United States and Soviet Union confront must lead to fatal dangerous of West Europea who between them, looking for a long-term partner can be the best choice for natural, after World War II in United States by virtue of the political status and economic power had more power than before, the West Europe was in the front porch of United States and Soviet Union antagonize, United States can't tolerate the communism fores rise gradually in West Europe, therefore the "Marshall Plan"brought forward on the premise that Europeans themselves together first. European joint is first necessary to resolve the relationship between France and Germany, the two countries are each other's enemies, after the two world wars, Germany and France the disparity between them is mainly embodied in coal resources and strength of steel and production of non-equilibrium.Accodering to this, French Schumann proposed the "Schuman Plan", and this plan was greatly recognized by Germany, in 1951, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg signed "the establishment of European Coal and Steel Community Treaty", European integration movement has taken the first step. European Coal and Steel Community has not only successfully resolved the conflicts between France and Germany, but also become a war between the two is highly unlikely. More importantly, it makes the relationship between West European countries more closely, through this cooperation will be closely linked to the six countries. However, Schumann plan was challenged with the outbreak of the Korean War, the United States will put re-arming of Germany on the agenda, and this is what Shumann Plan strive to prevent. France is worried that increasing competition in the East-West confrontation into a more serious cause of France's security situation, on the other hand, worried that the United States continue to support the Federal Republic of Germany, Germany will continue to be enhanced overall national strength, and equal with France. How to relieve the situation, so that the Federal Republic of Germany will not be a threat to France, by the Coal and Steel Community's success inspired, "Pleven Plan" have been selected, the core of the plan is German armed not armed Germany, with the strong support of the United States, in 1952, six-nation European Coal and Steel Community signed "Treaty of the European Defense Community." From Schumann plans to European Coal and Steel Community, Pleven plan to the European defense Community, is not difficult to see the United States played a leadership in European integration, the thinking of their integration was also based on global strategy of United States, the United States is the leader in Europe.However, with the European Defense Community rejected by the French, Western European countries are involved in a near state of the disorder, not only do they worry that the United States would weaken the protection of the Western European countries, but also have to face the fear from the Soviet Union and Germany double threat. The United States and Western Europe had a different strategic purpose led to the failure of the defense system, the main targets of the United States to prevent is the Soviet Union, the Federal Republic of Germany only a potential threat; Western European countries on the contrary, they not only fear of the Soviet Union continued westward expansion of the red forces and they feared that with the developed Germany would once again lead to war. And at this time with the death of Stalin, appeared in the Soviet Union to ease the diplomatic situation, Europeans needed not worry about the expansion of the Soviet Union, focus more on how to revitalize their own development.Accroding to Europeans view, revitalization of Europe can not simply rely on only one country, rely on the efforts of all of Europe. A joint West Europe can avoid the"condominium"by the United States and the Soviet Union or confrontation between the two brought damage to Western Europe. Furthermore, a joint West Europe also can play a greater impact in international affairs, in overcoming the crisis and to resolve regional conflicts in the interests of Western Europe can be guaranteed. The relative stability of the international situation so that Europeans began to rethink the direction of European integration, Schumann Plan and Pleven Plan had the different results show that supra-national ideology does not apply to all joint areas, once involved in the sovereignty of the country it would have been a complete failure. This time the deviation from the orbit of the Europeans gradually reformed: once again looked into the economic field. The economy of Western Europe had effective development after the Western Europe Coal and Steel Community, however, because few small European countries the characteristics of the people making the economies of the countries of Western Europe had been both strongpoints and the short points, how to make the European economy is deepening concern about the issue of most Europeans, the most direct way is the establishment of a European country can be involved in the common market, the market of Europe can become the cornerstone of national economic system, more importantly, the Europeans can make use of their practical economic co-benefits of each other, enhance our international competitiveness. On the military side, the six countries agreed to set up a group of atomic energy as France open their markets in return. Six countries in 1957 signed the"Treaty of Rome", the treaty is different from the first two treaties, it is from an economic point of view, Europe's economic situation from the start, through the establishment of the Common Market led European integration to the economic sphere, future Europe integration has opened up a broader range of Europe, more importantly, compared with the Coal and Steel Community and European Defense Community, the Treaty of Rome significantly reduced its political, member States would not be forced to give up national sovereignty and so on, interests of the United States at this time would not be on the top position to consider, would be replaced by the interests of the Europeans on the first.European integration to the "Treaty of Rome," had began a new chapter, from the political cooperation to the economic cooperation, Europeans thinking were also becoming much maturer, during this period, and with the interests of the Community will be firmly linked to various countries, this foreshow for the development of Europe will be entering a new phase, the era of sovereign states had gone away, replaced by a community, as Charles de Gaulle's view, a supra-national Europe must be a stateless Europe. Between Member States through sharing happiness and sorrow so that the Community has been a good development, the Community in the world can speak with a unified voice.
Keywords/Search Tags:European Coal and Steel Community, European Defense Community, cold war, thinking of the European Union, the Treaty of Rome
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