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Criteria & Indicators For The Analysis And Measurement On Sustainability Of Forest Management In Lin'an Model Forest

Posted on:2004-12-25Degree:DoctorType:Dissertation
Country:ChinaCandidate:C Q JiangFull Text:PDF
GTID:1116360092496832Subject:Forest cultivation
Abstract/Summary:PDF Full Text Request
The issue of development and environment is what international concerned. Sustainable Development harmonizes the relationship between human and nature. The forest issues having been the important topic of international dialogue and it has become the international accepted concept on forest development.How to monitor and evaluate the progress on SFM and how to judge the SFM?, the Criteria and Indicators, as a technical support to SFM, was initiated and conducted worldwide. Most researchers focus on the Criteria and Indicators at Regional and National levels, which could not be used in the measurement and assessment on the sustainability of SFM. Some international organizations implement a series of research on the C&I at forest management and community level, but the measurement and assessment in the field is not so much, because the quantity of all indicators is very difficult. Based on the review of C&I development on different initiatives, this study systematic deal with the development of C&I at community level and its application on the measurement and assessment of sustainability of forest management. The policy beyond the community, which impacts the SFM, was also analyzed. 3 typical sites of Lin'an, Zhejing of China where different forest management activities were emphasized. Both PRA and ecological survey methods were used and soci-economic condition of householders and the forest and environment resources in 1994 and 2002 were investigated respectively.The hierarchy structure of criteria and indicators at community level was developed which contains 41 indicators belonging to 11 criteria of 3 objectives. The methods on score and measurement on each indicator and criterion were developed.The results of the measurement on 3 sites in 1994 and 2002 showed:Ecological sustainability: The score in Changhua was 5.65 and 5.65 in 1994and 2002 respectively,the score in Gaohong increases from 4.69 to 5.09,and that in Lin'mu increases from5.47 to 6.80。Lin'mu got highest score in ecological sustainability.Social sustainability score:Changhua increases from 6 to 6.05, Gaohong decreases from 5.77 to 5.46, and Lin'mu increases from 5.79 to 5.94。The highest score is in Changhua.Economic sustainability score: Changhua from 4.97 to 5.72, Gaohong from 5.55 to 5.67 and Lin'mu from 5.02 to 5.56.The sustainability of forest management: Based on the wrights and score, the sustainability in 3 sites in 1994 and 2002 was calculated respectively. Changhua increases from 5.48 to 5.75, Gaohong from 5.21 to 5.37, and Lin'mu from 5.38 to 6.19. The scores are higher than 5, which is the Mark of between poor and good forest management. It shows that forest management in 3 sites and in 2 time-years was in the state of good management respectively, but it has a long way to reach the idea state of SFM. The results of policy analysis showed:The concept of forest farmers changed but they put the economic into the first priority to environment which calls economic benefit-oriented..The history of forest land property changed from landlord-owned to private-owned then to people's community and to private-used. The lowest use efficiency in the time when both ownership and use rights were centralized.Irrational tax and fee policy on timber. The total cost on tax and fees from cutting to selling of Chinese fir reaches 54.37% of total money from the selling. The cost of Lei bamboo shoot is only 1%. 71% of tax and fees collected from timber were used in non-forest sectors.The eco-public welfare forest was identified by forest department according to requirement government at high levels other than farmers themselves. Thecompensation fee is much lower than the forest values and the farmers are difficult to get the compensation fee on time. The experience on Lin'mu eco-tourism development showed: The market approach to compensate the loss of benefits resulted from that the forest resource was allocated to the eco-public welfare forest is an effective way.
Keywords/Search Tags:Sustainable Forest Management, Criteria & Indicators, Sustainability, Community, Property Rights, Taxation, Ecological Benefit Compensation
PDF Full Text Request
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