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On Power: A Study Of Legitimacy And Rationality

Posted on:2006-07-17Degree:DoctorType:Dissertation
Country:ChinaCandidate:C H JiangFull Text:PDF
GTID:1116360155467890Subject:Marxist philosophy
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What's the ground of power legitimacy and rationality or what's the premise of power? This subject may be more important than power itself. We do not give any explanation to power itself whole neglecting history. But we focus our attention on the ground of power-legitimacy and rationality. With the rethinking and criticizing of the premise, we can find that the owning and losing of power go with the rising of the historical horizon hand in hand; the legitimacy and rationality of power derive from the times' spiritual and quintessential philosophy's assign topic. When a society is in the course of transformation of social managing that this transformation includes the transformation of social managing and organizing structure. And the transformation of social managing and organizing structure is sure to contain the transformation of power legitimacy and rationality. Accordingly, the type of power changes. A modern society's power can not be based on the power legitimacy and rationality of traditional society. Meanwhile, it can not exceed the historical period or the following modern society's power type to implement the social management. Therefore, power needs to manage; without the support of legitimacy and rationality, the power system will collapse. One hand, the construction of power system needs legitimacy's proof and rationality's support; On the other hand, the consolidation and development of power system require the advancement and continual renovation of power legitimacy and rationality.To study the power legitimacy and rationality has deep theoretical and practical significance. Seen from the theory, as the typically important element of social management and organization, power has different meanings, in the transforming course of power forms, we can find, power transformation goes hand in hand with social management and organization, while the transformation of social management and organization is similar to the society transformation. As a nation of political organizing type, the power experiences the change of domination, laws ruling and governing; while, as an enterprise of economical organizing type, it changes from family manufacturing to cooperating enterprise, stock enterprise and modern company. Its power type changes as well. To explore the three types of power from the theory and to reveal the change of its legitimacy and rationality, we can recognize their different characteristics and socio-historical roots. Seen from the reality, Chinese society is transforming to the modernization with the background of whole world unification. The upholding and reconstructing of power legitimacy and rationality are not only affected by modernism but also stressed by latter modernism. To recognize the power from the internal social structure, without any suspect, Chinese practical power phenomena had strong traditional color. How to prompt power from tradition to modern? This research can provide a theoretical analyzing frame and way-chosen scheme.This thesis will synthetically use philosophy, managing theory, politics, ethics and sociology, by means of pedigree and comparison research to rethink and check the change of power legitimacy and rationality, and to reveal the philosophic root of power legitimacy and rationality. It provides the theoretical explanation for the choices of present Chinese social management and organization's power legitimacy and rationality. Also it provides the target model for future Chinese power structure of social management and organization.The legitimacy and rationality of power are the two sides of a coin. The combination of them constitutes the basis and premise of power. A legitimate power is not always rational, whole a rational power may be illegitimate. Legitimacy solves the problem of power's possibility while rationality solves the problem of power's effectiveness. And they form a tight form structure in the power's impetus system. Value and tool are regarded as two forces to keep the balance and stability of power. Marx pointed out clearly, "the dominant idea is only the expression on conception of dominant material relationship, and it is only the dominant material relationship expressed by the idea forms." The deepest basis of legitimacy lies in the benefits relationship determined by certain social economic relationship. The satisfaction with the internal members' benefits in social organization is the material basis of power legality. In any order social organization, the legitimacy and rationality of power can reach the mutual unification. However, the core of its legitimacy and rationality is continually making philosophical changes. It has different implied meanings in different times lingual situations. And the difference goes hand in hand with the advancement of people's recognition and changing of the world. Besides, it is firmly related to the change of the philosophic thinking way. Drucker points out, "legitimacy is purely a functional concept. There is no absolute legitimacy. Only when touching basic social belief, A power might be legitimacy. The constitution of legality is a question to be answered according to typical society and political belief. A power is legal only when it is considered rational and proper by the accepted social morality or apriorism." Legitimacy and rationality are the unification of simultaneousness and diachronic, which contain both human's common value ideal of simultaneousness (fairness, freedom, equality, justice, kindness, truth etc.) and times individuality of simultaneousness. And simultaneousness is the main characteristics, for the value ideal of diachronic uses the same concept, however to the changes of philosophic thinking way.The transformation in philosophic history provides different historic horizons for power legitimacy and rationality. Accordingly, three different ideas towards power come into being, the power idea of traditional society, the power idea of modern society and the power idea of latter modern society.Traditional society is the earlier industrial society and it is in the early period of human society. Because of the limitation of recognizing and transforming the world, people are under the control of nature, and subject is covered in object. In this period, the philosophic subject is to seek thesubstance's nature, and subject is covered in object. In this period, the philosophic subject is to seek the substance's nature, proton, primitive, cause and drive. Ontology has become the first philosophic thinking way of human. In this period, reason consists of object, divine order of things, destiny and Heaven's which exist beyond human. Accordingly, in this period, as an important element in the social dominant system, the premise of legitimacy must be objective centralism. People's recognition of power is based on the worship for God, Heaven and deity. Its basis of rationality certainly suits objective reason. The constructive type of power is domination.Modern society is just industrial society, also the sociality of modernization. Before people entered the society, Copernicus type of revolution happened to their philosophic thinking way.This is the transformation from ration's objective centralism to the subjective centralism. Human nature replaced God nature and ration replaced stupidity. The people who were deprived of the thinking rights by God worship and stupidity have got the central place in the turning of the theory of knowledge. It's the first time for people not to kneel down, to worship, to believe without thinking and it is the first time for them to become the subject of master, consciousness and self-doing. That knowledge is power makes people the legislator of the world and the dominator to rule, transform and control the objects. On modern historical horizon, the premise of power legitimacy is certainly the subjective centralism. People's recognition of power is based on people's purpose and it is the similarity of initiative reason. The basis of the reason is surely the scientific reason and the tool reason. The constructive type of power is ruling by law.Latter modern society is so called latter industrial society. It is a new and developing social structure. With the development of modern scientific technology and traffic vehicles and communication, people enter into the latter industrialization and the new whole-global times. Human society's industry axis changes rapidly. The world is affected by intensive extension and abbreviation of time and place. Different peoples' cultures strike and affect each other throughout the world. The subject of philosophy changes again. The original frame has been broken. The scientism and rationlism are suspected. All the supremacy slogans are subverted. The difference of border and center is gone. People are no longer absorbed in the conquest of object. Instead, they are in quest for the communication of subject and the mutual stretching between subject and object. Accordingly, great changes have happened among the concept of power.The premise of power legitimacy is the practice of subjective communication. People's recognition of power is based on the common recognition of multi-subjects. The basis of its rationality is the reason of practice. The type of power structure is governing.The power standpoint of Chinese society is relatively steady in the course of the long historical evolution. And it is also deeply marked with Chinese culture. After undergoing the great renovation of Chinese modern times, in the course of modernization, the power standpoint of Chinese society has appeared under the banner of Marxism. Modern and traditional power standpoints together withdomestic and western power standpoints complicatedly mixed. Meanwhile, with the background of the whole-globe, Chinese society must gradually develop into information society as well as completing its industrialization. As a result, China faces not only the problem of modernization but also the problem of latter modernization. Concerning the national power, the mentioning of "Three Representations" is indeed the resorting to Chinese Communist Party's power legality. With the instruction of "Three Representations", the party announces "Ruling the nation by law", "Governing the nation by morality and "The power is used for people; the profit is made for people; the sentiment is considered for people." All this reflects the power standpoint of Chinese characteristic socialism. Engels points out, "Revolution is defined as 'some people force others to accept their will by using guns, bayonets and cannons which is so called authoritative methods. If the winning party does not want to lose its achievements, it has to maintain its ruling by using the arms to make the enemies frightened." The idea has ever been the important ground of Chinese Communist Party's power legality. However, we should notice the great changes in the world's political, economic, cultural and technological fields since "The Communist Party's Declaration" was announced 150 years before. We must notice the great changes in our national socialist construction. Also, we must notice the great changes in the working and winning conditions of large majority of party cadres and people as well as the social environment. And we must evaluate the severe challenge and brandly new discussion to our party's power." How to rebuild the legitimacy basis of the ruling party in the new century became a vital question for study to the third generation leading coUectiveness whose core leader is Jiang Zeming. The announcement of "Three Representations" requires the whole party to enhance the leading and ruling ability continually, also to enhance the ability to resist the corruption and risk. That's the political declaration of ruling party's improvement and widening the legality basis in the new century. And the idea that Hu Jintao pointed out "The power is used for people; the profit is made for people; the sentiment is considered for the people." "The concept of scientific development", "To build the socialist harmonious society" and "All-round realizing the well-off society" are the premise that transforms "Three Representations" into national power legitimacy. Meanwhile, law-ruling and morality-ruling constitute the basis of power rationality.The research is spread out in eight aspects. The first, from the different power concepts, to reveal the important function in the society management organization; The second, to analyze the relationship between power and capital, mentality form, democracy and justice; The third, to analyze how legitimacy constitutes the basis of power; The fourth, to analyze how rationality becomes the premise of power; The fifth, to discuss the power structure of traditional society and to reveal the legitimacy and rationality of the dominant power type; The sixth, to discuss the power structure of modern society and to reveal the legitimacy and rationality of the law-ruling power type; The seventh, to describing the power structure of latter modern society and to reveal the legitimacy and rationality of governing power type; The eighth, to analyze the inevitable requirement of Chinesesociety's transformation for power types' substitution, and to provide the concrete scheme that rationality supports and the material for society transformation's rebuilding and legitimacy's accumulation.
Keywords/Search Tags:Power, Legality, Reasonability, Domination, Law-ruling, Governing
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