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Before And After Decentralization. "great Leap Forward" And Received The Right

Posted on:2008-05-02Degree:DoctorType:Dissertation
Country:ChinaCandidate:J H ZhangFull Text:PDF
GTID:1116360212991648Subject:Chinese Communist Party
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The study of the "Great Leap Forward"is an important issue in the Party History Research. Revolved "the Great Leap Forward" many scholars has conducted the research from multi- angles of view, and has yielded a series of fruits. The author discovered in the research that the "Great Leap Forward" has important links with devolution of powers under the system since the Eighth National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party and the National System Conference.This paper is undertaken to discuss the relations between the "the Great Leap Forward" and devolution and resumption of powers, through combing the history process of devolution and resumption of powers during "the Great Leap Forward" movement,Mao Zedong's thought about how to deal correctly with the relations between the central government and the local units in "Discussed Ten Important Relations" set the keynote of the System Conference held in the year of 1956. On the basis of Learning from the Soviet Union and analyzing the dictatorship problem since the First Five-Year Plan ,the central government proposed to transfer powers to the local units.This article comes exactly from this.It can be said that devolution of powers has provided the system foundation for "the Great Leap Forward", has not devolution of powers,the situation cannot form or at least cannot be the afterwards aspect. It is right to carry on the reform of the highly centralized planned economy. But, because having erroneous zone in the attribute of the enterprise itself , the central authority only limits to transfer enterprise's management authority to the next level of units, in stead of letting the enterprise become the independent producer and operator,only makes improvement and adjustment within the planned economy pattern, purely hits circles revolving around devolution and resumption of powers. This kind of devolution of powers doomed to be defeated; At the same time, under the specific historical background of the "Great LeapForward", the excessively released authority, the denial rules and regulations, caused the production to fall into turmoil.Both "the Great Leap Forward" and the devolution of powers take huge destruction of the productive forces as the price.This article is mainly to carry on a historical description of the devolution and resumption of powers since "the Great Leap Forward" depending on the massive historical material, simultaneously, to make brief analysis on some theory questions about devolution of powers involved in this article, in order that the subject research will be clearer.The full text is composed of five parts.Introduction. To elaborate the significance of the topic selected, research method, current research tendency, innovation and structure of the article.The first chapter, the background of releasing powers. A basic review of the national economy restoration in the early years of new China and choosing of the planned economy. At the beginning of the founding of the nation the choice of socialism planned economy conforms to the national condition, has its historical inevitability, and also has played the vital role to the national construction and the economical development. But the highly centralized planned economy has also fettered the productive forces, and has affected the socialism production and the construction.The second chapter, the National System Conference convenes and the start of releasing powers. the National System Conference held in 1956 takes releasing powers as the subject.After the conference ,specially after "the Great Leap Forward" in the year of 1958 , the central government carries on reforms one after another of many aspects involving industry, finance, trade, capital construction, personnel management, culture and education and so on. This part will make an introduction to the background and the content of the reforms in various aspects.The third chapter, devolution of powers and "the Great Leap Forward".Since the Great Leap Forward" has started, local governments at all levels use the authorities released,besides which the management powers of central and provincial enterprises are released on a large scale. Local governments therefore have grasped more resources, and appeared to start items blindly along with it; In this process, the central government proposes furtherly the goal of constructing the industrial system which takes cooperating areas as units, under the environment of releasing powers,cooperation has been entrusted with special significance in " the Great Leap Forward" movement, at the same time, the central and also local government committee has strengthened the cooperation area from theorganization, and established economic cooperation area and economic coordinate commission.The fourth chapter, the start of taking back the powers released. At the beginning of 1959, Mao Zedong and the central government had discovered the mistakes of the "Great Leap Forward", then realized transfering functions to lower levels too excessively and quickly was an important reason to have created difficulties. It is an important aspect of resumption of powers to take back the management* jurisdiction released excessively from the second half year of 1957 to the first half year of 1958, emphasizing "The whole country is a single entity",and requesting to strengthen the centralism unified leadership.From the course of taking back of powers we can see that the process of strengthening the unified management and taking back powers released is basically continued,though the endeavor of correcting "Left" mistakes is once broken by the Lushan Conference. Resumption of powers has the positive significance to control the situation of "the Great Leap Forward",and to Standardize the economic order during "the Great Leap Forward".The Fifth chapter, taking back the powers released completely and the end of the "Great Leap Forward". When "the Great Leap Forward" was beset with difficulties, the central government has to taking back the powers released in order to control capital construction aspect which is approaching to the degree of out of control .Since 1961 the central government has increased dynamics in taking back powers, in order to consolidated the effect of resumption of powers, the central government held " Congress of 7,000 Persons ". This congress takes the counter-decentralization as the subject, and requests to strengthen the centralization, since "the Great Leap Forward" The disordered state also has received the conclusion along with the resumption of system. By this time, the system reform has held itself back to the high degree of concentration after the experiment of devolution of powers, the authority excessively released and then taken back since the " Great Leap Forward", from the year 1956 to 1962.The conclusion, the devolution or resumption of powers under the planned economy is a question which is difficult to deal with whether in theory or in practice. Releasing powers to the lower levels is not only adjustment to the original economic order, but also has had the very tremendous influence to the relations between the central government and the local units. The multitudinous researchers and the experts call this kind of phenomenon "the strange circle".In this part the author will make a discussion on how to go out this strange circle .revolving certain theoritical and practical questions, the historical and the realistic questions along with the phenomenon...
Keywords/Search Tags:the planned economy, the" Great Leap Forward", releasing powers (devolution of powers), taking back powers released (resumption of powers), economic restructuring
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