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Socialist Political Civilization Construction And Citizen Education Of China

Posted on:2008-03-26Degree:DoctorType:Dissertation
Country:ChinaCandidate:Z J CuiFull Text:PDF
GTID:1116360242460334Subject:Political Theory
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Since Jiang Zemin clearly put forward the task of constructing political civilization in 2001, the 16th NPC of communist party has considered the construction of socialist political civilization as the important goal in the comprehensive construction of a well-fare and socialist modern society, which clearly manifests the quality and pursue of keeping up with the time of Chinese communist party members and communism with Chinese characteristics. The entry of the concept of socialist political civilization into the scope of theories of Chinese communist party members and the social practice scope of communism with Chinese characteristics is not only the return and conformity to the rules of social civilization development of human beings, but also the active response to the changes of the time and the development of social practice.We hold the opinion that the political quality of citizens is the necessary condition for political civilization; otherwise, even if we have beautiful political ideals, we lack the motivation of pursuing; even if we have the concept of rights, we do not know how to maintain our own rights; even if we have the political system of being master of our own destiny, we do not practice it self-consciously; even if we have complete law system and fair judicial system, we do not know how to use it. So"citizen education"should be one of the important aspects of political civilization construction. Good citizen quality includes rational political thinking and self-conscious political behavior two aspects. The former is the logical beginning point of good citizen quality and its basis and core is the consciousness of rights of citizens; however, the realization and development of democratic system not only requires the"acquiescence"of people but also the active participation of them. Therefore, no matter from the perspective of politics or education, conducting in-depth research into citizen education and organically combining citizen education with socialist political civilization has important global significance. Citizens are the main body of democratic nomocracy construction and are also the root and base of a democratic nomocracy country. Without citizens that enjoy freedom and equality, there won't be a democratic nomocracy country. Among all the difficulties and problems we encounter in the construction of market economy, democratic politics and nomocracy country, the biggest difficulty and problem is lack of qualified main body condition, that is, lack of qualified modern citizens. Democratic politics needs qualified modern citizens. Modern politics is democratic politics and socialist democracy develops the useful and discards the useless of capitalist democracy. The construction of democratic politics needs the construction and perfection of law system on one hand, and the active participation of the whole body of citizens on the other hand. Only when the whole body of citizens is equipped with modern democratic consciousness and has the consciousness and ability of actively participating, discussing about and supervising politics, can we realize actual democratic politics. The hard course of democratic politics of recent China and the gradual loss of it after the foundation of new China shows from the negative side that without qualified citizens with modern consciousness, a real democratic politics can not be established.Nomocracy construction needs qualified modern citizens. Nomocracy is"ruling of the law"with constitution at the core. The tenet of monocracy is the limiting the right of government to protect the freedom and right of citizens. Nomocracy construction is not only a constructing process up down, it is more like a creating procedure bottom up. Nomocracy construction should not only rely on the promotion of such state organs as legislation, law enforcement and judicature. Citizen awareness has functions of directing, coupling and retrospection in the process of democratic nomocracy. It is important support for the dynamic development of law orders. Only when all the citizens are cultivated with feelings towards law and establish law belief, and when they are equipped with qualities of self-consciousness of observing the law and active law protection can nomocracy construction enter benign development track.Market economy needs qualified modern citizens. Market economy requires that market main body have free will and take part in social and economic life with an equal identity and qualification. This is the independent awareness and equal concept of modern citizens. Market economy needs benign market order and market environment and requires that the market main body conform with contracts and fair play honestly , which is the self-disciplined awareness, social morality awareness and law spirit of modern citizens. Currently, all kinds of problems exposed in economic activities such as inside dealing, contract cheating and counterfeit and sham products show the severe loss of citizen awareness in modern society, which has restricted and hindered the pace of market economy construction in China.Therefore, citizen education possesses an important position in political civilization construction.First, enhancing citizen political quality is an important step for establishing a highly developed socialist politics. The citizen quality of a nation reflects the degree of development of political civilization of that nation. The political quality of citizens has direct impact on political culture—a certain political quality is the internal factor for forming certain political culture and at the same time political culture can shape the political quality of an individual; the differentiation of structure and specialization strengthens the role awareness of citizens and responsibility awareness. The manner of political participation, efficiency and the brought social stability has a lot to do with the quality of citizens; the strengthening of functions of political system needs a certain political culture basis, a certain economic basis and the participation, support and identification of the mass. In a certain sense, it is the resultant of the several factors; at the same time, the exertion of the functions of political system can not be separated from the identification and understanding of political main body about the objective body. The quality of political main body has a deciding influence on the exertion of the functions of political system. Thus the political quality of citizens has important significance for the construction of political civilization.Second, from the perspective of the cultivation of citizen culture, we can see the fundamental place of citizen education in the construction of political civilization. The citizen education in China relatively lags behind. Therefore we must change our education concept and adopt equal and open citizen education and teach students how to be a qualified citizen in a modernized country. Popularizing and enhancing the citizen awareness and constitution concept of the whole body of citizens is the only way of China for political civilization. We should borrow from the useful experience of other countries in citizen education and reinforce the popularity of citizen education, correctly direct the political participation of citizens and the democratic practice to enhance their understanding of political system and democratic procedure, teach them citizen political knowledge and raise the political participation skill of citizens. At the same time, we should guide them to choose a viable political participation form that is closely linked with their own interest in order to make political socialization of the new period be more realistic and effective.Moreover, this thesis analyzes the relation between citizen education and political civilization construction from four aspects.First , the development of political civilization is actually the development of political main body. Without the development of political civilization body, the development of political civilization is bushwa. The so-called main body of political civilization is briefly speaking the constructor and successor of political civilization. There are two kinds of political civilization main bodies: individuals and groups. The individuals here refer to citizens and no matter whether they directly participate in the activities of the construction of political civilization, they are the main body of modern political civilization. Their political behaviors directly or indirectly form the basic landscape of modern political civilization. As for groups, they include state organs and government officials, parties and all kinds of political groups. But in traditional political civilization system, people are more concerned the role of this kind of political civilization body in political civilization. And the body position of common people are severely ignored and flooded.The main body construction of political civilization is the core of socialist political civilization and it has important significance for constructing socialist political civilization.The core connotation of political civilization mainly refers to the degree of advancement and level of maturity of certain social political system including constitution, government, law and administrative system, etc. The higher the degree of advancement and level of maturity of the political system of a country, the more guarantees the country has for social stability, economic development and cultural prosperity. But the perfection and development of each social political system is practiced under the restriction and guidance of the leading political ideology and value system of the society; the realization and maintenance of social political system must rely on the behaviors and practices of identification, acceptance, obedience and conformity of the political system by most social members. Therefore, a more complete connotation of political civilization refers to a kind of social civilization exhibited by forms of political and law system of a society, the leading political ideology of the society and the political behaviors of the massive social members. The 16th NPC of the communist party put forward the goal of comprehensively building a well-fare society and at the same time it put forward the goal in the aspect of socialist political civilization construction, that is, the socialist democracy is more perfect, the socialist law system is more mature , the basic strategy of law-ruling is comprehensively implemented, and the political, economic and cultural right of people is respected and guaranteed, democracy of grass roots is more healthier, and the social order is good and people live and work in peace and contentment. In order to realize these goals, report of the 16th NPC of the communist party put forward nine tasks of political construction and political system reform. This strategic deployment of the 16th NPC of communist party runs through a clear guidance idea and direction of effort, that is, under the condition of upholding the Four Cardinal Principles, continuing actively and stably promote political system reform, enlarging socialist democracy, making socialist law system be healthy, building socialist law-ruling country, consolidating and developing the political view of democracy unity , liveliness, stability and harmoniousness. Political civilization is actually the active result created by human beings and thus the main body of political civilization is the core and key of political civilization. The political body is active and initiative factor in political activities. Without the civilization of political body, political civilization is like water without a source and a tree without root. The political body connected with political objective body and it includes two parts: original meaning and derivated meaning. In social political life, under the motivation of political consciousness, political body are engaged in political activities to maintain and pursue fundamental interest The nature of political body decides the nature of political civilization and the degree of civilization of political body in a large sense determines the condition of political civilization. Political body can not only be an individual with political awareness and independent personality, but also political organizations and groups with common political ideals and political disciplines. It can also be political colony formed on the basis of shared interest. This diversified political body has different forms of embodiment in different countries and social development stages and they possess different positions in social political life and plays different roles. With the development of society, the position of political body is decided and affirmed through law procedures. Whatever the form of the political body, and how is its degree of rationalization, and in what motive and manner it is engaged in political activity and involved in political process, and whose interest it represents and maintains, these are all important marks for testing the degree of civilization. Thus we should examine and analyze the nature, role, structure and activity manners of national regime and in what extend and degree they represents the interest of the laboring mass; whether its leading political organization has a legal basis and if it can win the support of most social members and how is its activity manner, degree of systematism and ability of engaging in political activities; how is the right and obligation concept of the political body in the form of the mass, nomocracy moral concept, awareness and ability of political participation and discussing; how are all kinds of administrators that represent citizens to be engaged in political administration and political ruling activities be elected, and whether their behavior and the result are efficiently restricted; whether the social political regulations are healthy and perfect, and whether all kinds of political bodies can efficiently conform with all kinds of political regulations, etc. These comprise the standard system for evaluating the civilization of political body.In a word, the nature of political body determines the nature of political civilization and the degree of civilization of political body in a great sense determines the condition of political civilization. Therefore, as important political body in the process of political modernization , civilization construction will be the core and key of socialist political civilization. In order to reinforce the civilization construction of citizens which is the biggest political body and eliminate differences in political concepts and political behavior, we should make all kinds of democratic rights of people endowed by law be healthy as soon as possible and make people be gradually mature in the practice of socialist democratic practice. We should make people know the exact meaning of socialist democracy in order to better use and cherish their own democratic rights. It will be a long and complicated process to overcome the obvious disjoint between political concept and political behavior. It is also important content of civilization construction of political body. And reinforcing citizen education is the most efficient way for us to practice political civilization body construction.Second, citizen education can cultivate citizen spirit and promote the process of political civilization.At present, citizen spirit has not been established and developed in China and the political mentality and political culture of a society falls far behind the requirements for establishing socialist political civilization. As is known to all, China is a country with long history of feudalism and under the influence of feudal autocracy, the subordination concept among the mass political mentality is very deep but citizen spirit is not developed, as is shown in such phenomena as weighing obligation over right, being accustomed to people ruling instead of law ruling, lack of independence and self organization ability of society, disinterest in public affairs, etc. Since the reform and opening of China, with the development of market economy and the expansion of opening to the outside world, the traditional malpractice in political mentality combines with such concepts as money worship and hedonism which cause new phenomenon of dissimilation. The reason for these phenomena can attributed partly to non-perfect system but also to ignorance of reform on political mentality and the severe loss of citizen spirit. These phenomenons not only aren't in accordance with the goal of socialist political civilization construction but also cause system malfunction, law invalidity, social disorder and reform hindrance in many fields. Thus no matter from the perspective of the long-term goal of constructing socialist political civilization or from the standardization and rationalization of current social life , cultivating citizen spirit is necessary.Third, citizen education provides political civilization construction with a solid basis through promoting material and spiritual civilization.Only by vigorously reinforcing citizen education, providing scientific technology with fertile soil , scientifically planning the harmonious development between man and nature, solving unharmonious problems in developing civilization of our society can we lay a solid material foundation for building a harmonious socialist society. Market economy is law-ruling economy and it requires all the economic body to compete in a fair environment but the citizen awareness reflects the relation of freedom, equality and law-ruling principle and relation between right and obligation. It is utter deny of such feudal concepts as privilege consciousness and local protectionism that is deeply rooted the soil of in autarky economy. It lays an ideological foundation for the further perfection of socialist market economy. To fully exert the role of science and technology as first productivity we should divert economic construction to relying on scientific and technological advancement and lifting the quality of labors. The development of social economy can not be separated from the advancement of scientific advancement and the lifting of the quality of citizens, and education of citizens has the function of raising the reproductively of labor force and reproduction of scientific knowledge."To develop economy education is the priority". Citizen education has powerful economic function and it is productive. It can transform possible and undeveloped labor force into realistic, specialized and developed labor force. Citizen education is important tool for reproduction of scientific knowledge and science development which plays important role in raising production efficiency and increasing social wealth. Thus , we should strengthen citizen education and cultivate high-grade and high-qualified laborers in order to promote the healthy and orderly development of socialist material civilization and further to lay a solid foundation for socialist spirit civilization and political civilization and provide powerful material support for building socialist harmonious society.The construction of socialist advanced culture undertakes the historical mission of cultivating ideological and moral quality and scientific and cultural quality of the whole nation. To reinforce citizen education we must strengthen the construction of socialist advanced culture and continuously enrich the spiritual world of people, meet the increasing spiritual and cultural demand of people, continuously solidify the spiritual pillar of harmonious society construction in order to exert the function of guidance and education of culture to people and cultivate generation-after-generation socialist citizens with ideals, morality, culture and discipline. Through solidifying education of advanced culture to build a high degree of socialist spiritual civilization and create a healthy, harmonious and civilization advanced social atmosphere, which can help to enhance the ideological and moral quality and scientific and cultural quality of the whole nation and provide spiritual and intelligent support for the realization of comprehensive development of material and spiritual life of people. The comprehensive development of people is also a process of using advanced culture to replace backward culture and enhancing the quality of people has great significance for the development of society and the comprehensive development of people. We should consolidate citizen education and make socialist culture prosperous in order to give every person the chance of receiving education and the right of enjoying cultural fruit, make the spiritual world of people more substantial, the cultural life more colorful and continuously enhance the personality quality and morality of citizens. In a word, citizen education has special significance and possesses an important position in building socialist harmonious society and there is no shirking the responsibility of it to undertake the historical task of awaking the mass, reviving the nation, make politics democratic, and make the society prosperous. Reinforcing citizen education and cultivating high quality socialist citizens are important prerequisite for building a harmonious society and it also provides solid economic and cultural base for building a harmonious society.Last, the completion of the general goal of citizen education and political civilization construction of China.Citizens and their education are closely connected with the establishment of democratic politics and the process of political democracy.First, citizen in a strict sense is the result of modern society and democratic politics. It essentially reflects a kind of relationship between democratic nation and its political life and its members. They are the body of a society, the master of a country and the society they build is a basic form in which all the members live. But a country is their political home. They administer the society and promote the development of a country through a manner of democracy. They are not subject to anyone. They are people with body awareness and free right and they are independent in politics, economy and personality. The national law protects the realization of their free right and the relations between all citizens are equal.Second, citizens and their education and the development of democratic politics are reciprocally based on. Within a society full of subordinates, the real democracy in politics and social life can not be realized. The emergence of political democracy and the process of political democracy are highly dependent on citizens and the development of their education; the advocating of democratic politics will become the environmental condition and reasons for the existence and development of citizens and their education.To summarize, the interdependence of citizen education and democratic politics is straightforward, deeply and self-proving.Citizen education is the necessary choice for building socialist law-ruling country. Ruling a country by law requires cultivating citizen education and overcoming flaws in citizen quality. Ruling a country by law refers to under the leading of the communist party, the massive people administer economic, cultural and military affairs, administer social affairs to ensure each job of the country is practiced legally and gradually realize the systematization and legalization of socialism through all kinds of paths and forms according the regulation of constitution and laws. According to the definition of ruling a country by law, we can get two points: first, the key problem of ruling a country by law is to carry forward democracy, in essence, it is ruling a country through democracy, that is, people are masters of their own destiny and administer the national affairs through all kinds of methods and forms; second, ruling a country by law is law ruling, but people ruling. We must not change regulations and laws with the change of leaders and the change of the opinions and attention of leaders. A person as master of his own requires people to implement all kinds of rights endowed by law. But this should have independent, equal, and democratic citizen awareness as the prerequisite. Only when people establish democratic awareness can ruling a country by law be finally be realized.At present, there are lots of flaws in the citizen quality of China, mainly manifested in lack of independent and equal awareness of citizens,which is embodied by such peasant awareness as fatalism,no enterprising, and looking down upon knowledge. To realize ruling a country according to law, economically we should develop market economy in order to change self-supporting economy and eliminate the base of feudal autocracy such as official standard culture and peasant ideology. This is good for the forming of equal, competitive and democratic law concept. Politically, we should take the road of law ruling of government promoting type. The party and government should take the lead to implement law and observe law. Culturally, we should reform our education and cultivate citizen education, which is the humanities basis for realizing ruling a country by law. In a word, the way of disengagement of citizen law awareness from the vanity of traditional official standard culture, peasant awareness, capitalist decayed awareness and post-modernism is also the way of law ruling and realizing people being master of their own destiny. But the two internally integrate in citizen education. The current citizen quality of China is not able to undertake the task of realizing law ruling, which needs us to cultivate citizen education and make citizens have independent,equal,and democratic awareness in order to lay a solid humanities foundation for law ruling.Last,this thesis put forward some feasible measures for enhancing the level of citizen education in China according to the realistic condition of China. It is hoped that they can have certain contribution to democratic citizen education in China and promoting the advancement of socialist political civilization by the development of citizen education.
Keywords/Search Tags:Civilization
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