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Rousseau's Social Contract Theory And Theory Of Human Nature Foundation

Posted on:2010-11-12Degree:MasterType:Thesis
Country:ChinaCandidate:L LaiFull Text:PDF
GTID:2166360275460731Subject:Legal theory
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Rousseau always is in the Western legal science thought important personage,his thought to Western politics legal regime development influence until now.Rousseau's work are very many,all these works have all manifested his thought complexity and the tolerance, all is the scholar studies the Rousseau thought the classical text.The social contract thought was usually explained for social and the national origin reasonable basis,is explained for the political authority's legitimate foundation,therefore the social contract thought in the 17,18th century West politics law thought occupies the dominant position.In the Western modern times classical natural law school of thought advocated the social contract discusses the thinker,Hobbes,Locker,Rousseau all is the social contract thought important representative personage.The Hobbes comprehensive system elaborated the social contract thought,is laying a foundation;Locker elaborates the political authority origin fully as well as the government function,and proposed the decentralization principle,is the social contract theory development;But Rousseau's social contract discussed has filled the thorough bourgeois democracy principle spirit,was epitomizing,also was most is worth disputing.But the Western modern times social contract theory all is take the theory of human nature as a starting point,may say the theory of human nature the difference is creates the social contract theory different content the important attribute,therefore must understand the social contract theory does not have not to have to study analyzes its theory of human nature foundation.This article mainly is embarks from Rousseau's theory of human nature,in the theory of human nature foundation elaborated his social contract discusses the thought.This article mainly is "Discusses Science And Art" to him,"Discusses Human not Equal Origin And Foundation" and "Social contract Discusses" three texts to carry on the explanation,and take Rousseau's theory of human nature as the starting point explanation social contract theory,finally carries on reconsidering in the theory of human nature foundation to his social contract theory.This article divides into three parts:Foreword,main text and conclusion.The foreword mainly introduced this article research significance and the research angle of view,as well as Rousseau's question.Only then realized fully Rousseau's question was at, can understand the status which to his social contract theory Rousseau's theory of human nature which plays the role and locates.In the paper main text first chapter is about the modern times social contract theory, mainly introduces Hobbes and Locker's human nature theory and the social contract theory.Hobbes's theory of human nature thought the human under the war natural state, human's natural disposition is preserves,the people in order to protect oneself on work out the contract mutually,gives the authority the sovereignty,thus combines to form Leviathan, Leviathan is preserves the final conclusion by Hobbes which this theory of human nature premise embarks promotes,also is the Hobbes social contract theory primary coverage.But Locker also is from preserves embarks,uses from the natural state to the social condition proof pattern.Locker's natural state starts is by no means the Hobbes that kind of state of war natural state,but is one complete self sufficient natural state.Has the property in this natural state servant through the work,the human to the request concrete application which preserves to the human life,the freedom and the property protection,specially the protection impelled the people to the property to sign the contract to enter the citizen society.Protects people's life, the freedom and the property,makes up the insufficiency which the natural state produces is government's main purpose,therefore government's political authority also has the limit,this is and Hobbes's significant difference.Locker has developed greatly forward in Hobbes's rationale the social contract theory a stride,has built the solid rationale for the modern politics system establishment,and the production which discusses for the Rousseau theory of human nature and the social contract has laid the foundation.Second chapter is about the Rousseau theory of human nature content.This part mainly is the Rousseau theory of human nature formation and the content two aspects.No matter is Hobbes's all people to all person's war natural state,Locker's complete complete natural state, human's self-preservation and everybody equality as well as humanity's common demand all is emphasized,in the human nature rational factor all is receives takes,human's rationality causes the people to transit from the natural state to the social condition,subsequently establishes the government and the country.Under this kind of modern West politics system, the individual freedom and the benefit obtain the enormous promotion and the development,it liberated people's desire enormously,stimulates the people to pursue the material interest unceasingly,and indulges in to life enjoyment,therefore under society prospers in the surface is concealing the social morals and prevailing custom ruining.In advocation material society, people's gap between rich and poor is more and more big,the poor person lives under rich person's brutal squeezing,has formed the sharp contrast with the lively social surface.Rousseau is precisely after saw this not equal social reality,in has extremely launched reconsidering and in the intense critique foundation to the modern society has formed his theory of human nature.When 17,the 18th century philosophers all for the rationality,loudly sings the song of praise for the science,Rousseau still advocates the morality moral character and the prevailing custom.Because Rousseau in other initiation scholar for modern West politics system defense time,keenly realized actually to concealed danger,saw clearly realistic social politics the malpractice,he saw more and more civilized,a rational degree higher realistic society fills the society which the material desire ruined,saw the human in the society not the equality and the oppression,saw human nature degenerating.Therefore he thought human's true natural disposition is not infrequent has educates the rationality which the talented person has,but lies in the human and pities heart these two kind of natural emotions from the compassion,therefore the human nature should remove the sociality,as well as removes the rationality outside the human nature.Third chapter elaborates in the theory of human nature foundation social contract theory.This part mainly is the elaboration from the Rousseau human nature the logical advancement which discusses in the case of his social contract,as well as Rousseau's social contract discusses content.Rousseau first was embarks from the natural state,elaborated in some fortuitous factor under the impetus,the human from the natural state to the social condition development,in to the social development in,the human more and more was not inevitably equal,the human nature also more and more received the disassimilation.In the modern society,human's desire is exceptionally formidable,and pities the heart from the compassion all to be insufficient to contain,instead its oneself also unceasingly suffers the corrosion,if in society's person takes its survival way again by the natural state,then the humanity will be able to perish,therefore will need to find one kind of solution the method, one kind of social construction goal and standard.Because under the natural state,the natural person has the thorough independence,does not rely on anybody,he is most free,can satisfy self-preserved well the instinct,therefore in the natural state natural person's freedom,became Rousseau to criticize social the most powerful weapon,also became Rousseau to construct the social contract theory a goal and the standard. Therefore Rousseau must to the natural state key attention,and takes the natural state under theory of human nature his politics theory the starting point.Rousseau thought develops unceasingly along with the rationality under the human chance factors function,the human on possibly establishes its public right in the stable foundation,like this establishes the social regime may avoid beforehand regime not being imperfect,this kind of regime can the most powerful safeguard person's freedom,realize human's self-preservation instinct need well.Therefore,Rousseau's social contract discusses is must restructure in the theory of human nature foundation,enters in this kind of social condition,the human can look like the natural state the natural person is same,realization human nature nature return.Must enter this kind of society,each union and own all rights all give completely to the entire collective,only then each people all completely have offered the right,thus all person's condition all is the identity,who can't have to oppress whose question.The people unify mutually form the community,and works out the contract,all individual all should obey people's and society's whole,all people all should obey are people's common wills,also obeys the general opinion.Fourth chapter is in with Hobbes and in Locker's comparison,discusses from the theory of human nature angle to the Rousseau social contract carries on reconsidering.In Rousseau's community,exists personally as a community's part,between individual mutually equal, enjoys the sovereignty status equally.Through the composition community,everybody all obey the law,both guaranteed community's authorities and to safeguard individual freedom.But in community's citizens are and the natural person are different.The citizen must take everybody will as a will,must forget took the natural person,abandons the natural sentiment.Therefore artificial has still looked like before in the society is equally free,the people must the non-nature,in society's freedom only then thoroughly obey completely through each person in free society's will only then Cheng Qiwei possibility.Personally in goes to in the nature process,the natural person transforms the citizen,attaches in the community,the citizen on more approaches own morality moral character,the time take the public will as own will.But individual will with general opinion not always consistent,both have brought the impact in the realistic stratification plane conflict to the community, therefore highlights personally with society's conflict in here.How knew this conflict is understands the Rousseau social contract thought the key.The conclusion part is the summary which discusses to in the Rousseau theory of human nature foundation social contract.Rousseau and pities the heart from the self-preserved natural disposition as well as from the compassion the natural emotion to embark,elaborated his social contract theory from the theory of human nature foundation.Has the irreconcilable contradiction in this theory of human nature foundation social contract theory,investigates its reason is in the solution personally in the method which conflicts with the society between, Rousseau thought the rationality can develop in the history is restrained the chance factors, the existence uncertainty,whether the rationality consummates cannot determine,this kind of uncertainty causes the society which Rousseau devised freely is only one possibility,causes him not to be able to propose any concrete actual political plan.In brief,this article through "Discusses Science And Art" to Rousseau,"Discusses Human not Equal Origin And Foundation" and "Social contract Discusses" three texts to carry on the explanation,and through the comparative analysis method,embarks from the Rousseau theory of human nature elaborated his social contract thought,finally completes to his theory of human nature foundation in social contract theory reconsidering.
Keywords/Search Tags:The Theory Of Human Nature, Self-love, Compassion, The Public Will, Emotion, Reason
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