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The Formation Of Sino-American Antagonistic Relation (1949-1953)

Posted on:2006-08-01Degree:DoctorType:Dissertation
Country:ChinaCandidate:L ZhangFull Text:PDF
GTID:1116360155454609Subject:Political Theory
Abstract/Summary:PDF Full Text Request
It was one of the most conspicuous aspects in the postwar period that Sino-U.S relationship of hostility lasted for more than 70 years since the late 40's to 70's. Up to date we do not have any special systematic research on the formation of relationship of hostility at the beginning of the establishment of People's Republic of China (PRC). The author explored the premise, process, root and consequence of the relationship of hostility based on the research works we had and analyzed it as a comparatively integrated period from the establishment of PRC in 1949 to the end of Korean War in 1953. The purpose of this research is to widen the fields of vision of Sino-U.S relationship research and provide some beneficial references to today's comprehension of the Sino-U.S relationship and to the ways of how to dealing with it. In this article it will employ the way of study by the combining the Study of history, the Study of Politics and the Study of International Strategy. It involves five chapters in this article besides introduction and conclusion. Chapter one: The Premise of Sino-American Antagonistic Relation The East-Asia Policy is a strategy held by the U.S during postwar is part of the polices global strategy. The main task is to contain Russia against socialism. Scramble for and control the vast continent between PRC and Russia is their final goal. The global strategy of U.S urges him to search for a citadel in East-Asia. So U.S turned to his former enemy –Japan, and so Japan became the core of East-Asia Policy. The postwar strategy of U.S in China is to put PRC into his sphere of influence and make it to be his dependency. Neglecting the power of the leading role of the Communist Party, U.S put forward the prominent policy of supporting Jiang Jieshi in fighting against the authority of the Communist party. Finally. This policy aroused the national's revolutionary fervor and the extreme hatred towards the U.S imperialism. After the war, The Chinese Communist Party knew clearly about the U.S policy of supporting Jiang Jieshi and fighting against the authority of the Communist party, they tried their best to restrain and diminish the scale and degree of the U.S interference into civil affairs of China, and put forward the policy of "neutralizing America. "the presence of this policy not only avoid the interference of U.S, but also become more active in fighting against U.S. Chapter Two: The Initial Formation of Sino-American Antagonistic Relation After PRC founded, U.S carried out the policy of hostility in all dimensions: In diplomacy, he refused to admit the existence of PRC; in economy, he limited the commerce strictly and accelerated the economic difficulties; at the same time, he made use of cultural allegation to attack new China. All these developed into the main factors of the deterioration of Sino-U.S relationship. The U.S policy to PRC seemed to have some elasticity , but in fact it is rigid. It meant so long as the authority of the Kuomingtang didn't collap, U.S would admit it as the only legal authority, besides he made Taiwan problem more troublesome. The performance of this policy vanished the essential prerequisite for building formal diplomatic relations and it was hard for the Chinese Communist Party to set the first pace for normalization of Sino-U.S relationship. Although U.S had ever "give up Taiwan "for a short period of time, it was merely a way to break up the relationship between PRC and Russia. The Korean War, happened soon after, provided the opportunity for the thorough change of attitude to Taiwan. In face of the hostility from all dimensions, The Chinese Communist Party adapted the strong but flexible diplomatic policy to the U.S. It ended the humiliated diplomatic history of old China on the one hand, and on the other it turned a new page for the new style diplomatic history of new China. During this period the initial Sino-U.S relationship of hostility came into being. Chapter Three: Complete Establishment of Sino-American Antagonistic RelationAfter the Korean War broke out, the direct conflict between China and U.S. in the battlefield caused the U.S. extremely antagonized. China, the U.S. denied the new-born China, meanwhile obstructed China in recovering the legal status, attempted to exclude China from international community and carried out the economic policy of containment in an all-round way. During the Korean War, the policy of containment directly resulted in the establishment of Sino-U.S. antagonistic relation. After the Korean War broke out, U.S. not only dispatched troops to Korea on behalf of the UN, but occupied Taiwan with force, put forward the theory "the status of Taiwan cannot be confirmed", and formulated the two-China policy. Jiangjieshi Bloc enhanced their control to Taiwan with the American help. From then on U.S. came to obstruct China in unifying the whole country with military force. Facing the most powerful imperialistic country in the world, China took hard policy, dispatching troops to Korea and fighting with U.S. The victory of the War to resist U.S. Aggression and Aid Korea is not only a victory in military of new China but also a magnificent feat in diplomacy of new China. The establishment of Sino-U.S. antagonistic relation followed the end of the war. Chapter Four: Analysis of the Root of Sino-American Antagonistic Relation This chapter will analyze the root of Sino-U.S. antagonistic relation on the basis of the concrete discussion about the formation of Sino-U.S. antagonistic relation. First of all , Sino-U.S. antagonistic relation was formed under the background of the Cold War. the direct reason of Sino-U.S. antagonistic relation was the American policy-"For Jiang, Against Communism", which caused Chinese Communist distrust U.S. and Chinese peoples oppose U.S. The reasons why China was hostile to U.S. and leaned to Soviet Union related to the international background, which had profound and necessary relation with the quality and developing logic of Chinese revolution and also was a necessary reflection on American policy-"For Jiang, Against Communism"; while the antitheses of ideology and regime was the decisive factor of Sino-U.S.antagonistic relation. Furthermore, the reason that U.S. insisted on the policy-"For Jiang, Against Communism"rooted in the conflict of ideology and regime between China and U.S.; the conflict of national benefits was the basic reason of Sino-U.S. antagonistic relation. Based on their respective national benefits, the diplomatic policies which were adopted by China and U.S. directly led to the formation of Sino-U.S. antagonistic relation. The attitudes of CCP towards the U.S. was the vital factors of Sino-U.S. antagonistic relation. Chapter Five: Analysis of the Result of Sino-American Antagonistic Relation Sino-U.S. antagonistic relation was formed under the background of the Cold War. After the war, which affected the post and prosend international patterns, which especially influenced deeply the Sino-U.S. relation. This chapter will analyze influence on China and U.S. caused by Sino-U.S. antagonistic relation. First, this chapter emphasizes that the establishment of Sino-U.S. antagonistic relation caused the pattern that China and U.S. had alienated each other for a long period, and directly led to the 20-year opposite and estrangement. Furthermore, It made the Taiwan issue become the prolonged political dispute between China and U.S. In the past half century, U.S. always acted on an ignominious interference which stood in the way of the union of Taiwan and Mainland. The establishment of Sino-U.S. antagonistic relation severely harmed the mutual benefits. The passage also pointed out that the pattern of Sino-U.S. antagonistic relation forced the two governments to adjust their diplomatic policy , which laid a foundation for the eventual reconciliation of the two countries. In a word, this passage takes the formation of Sino-U.S. antagonistic relation as the thread to explore precondition, process, cause and effect of the formation of the hostile relation, summarize the historical experience and deepen the acquaintance and understanding of the development and change between China and U.S. Beyond all doubt, it must be necessary and beneficial...
Keywords/Search Tags:America's foreign policy to China, China's foreign policy to America, Sino-American antagonistic relation
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