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Appraisal Of Nongovernmental Elements' Influence On Transition Of Japan's Policy Towards China During 1952-1972

Posted on:2011-10-03Degree:DoctorType:Dissertation
Country:ChinaCandidate:W B ZhangFull Text:PDF
GTID:1116360305499218Subject:Scientific Socialism and the international communist movement
Abstract/Summary:PDF Full Text Request
After World Warâ…¡, it was waiting a long time until Sino-Japanese relations realized normalization in 1972. Although the research of Sino-Japanese relations has been quite deep, so far as I know there is not any paper systematically studied nongovernmental elements which influence Japan's decision-making towards China up to now. For this reason this dissertation attempts to make a try. Here, it promoted that though China brought up the fact that "Citizen Diplomacy should be used in development of Sino-Japanese relations", there is also a group of nongovernmental elements in Japan that pushing forward Sino-Japanese Ties. Japanese nongovernmental elements do not represent the official, but they are the basis of Normalization of Sino-Japanese relations in Japan. The numbers of them are from few to more, the power of them are from weak to strong, and they are playing an important role of influencing Japan's decision-making towards China. Under their influence, although Japanese government did not change the China guideline which has been established, it raised the intervention for Sino-Japanese nongovernmental association. As the powers of nongovernmental elements became stronger and the public pressure of normalization of Sino-Japanese relations increased, when the catalyst of Sino-American approach appeared, Japanese government made the decision to normalize relations with China.In addition, this research is focused on what kind of influence that nongovernmental elements made on government decision-making, for the reason that nongovernmental exchanges between China and Japan play a pivotal role in history now and in the future, especially during the period of normalization of Sino-Japanese relations. From inspecting of Japanese nongovernmental elements which influenced Japan's policy-making towards China, we can tidy up the history of development of bilateral relations, grasp the prospect of Sino-Japanese relations, and promote the communication and cooperation in the future. At the same time, with the development of globalization process, the role of citizen diplomacy will turn to be more and more important. Strengthen nongovernmental exchanges and raise, the level of cooperation will also become the main channel for improving relations between neighbor countries or regional areas.The chapters consist of nine parts, including preface, chapter one to seven and the conclusion.The preface is mainly majoring on the topics and objectives of the present research situation at home and abroad, the literature reference, the research approach, Analysis of tools, Analysis of related concepts, and the innovation of this passage.The first chapter is part of the basic theory deduction. It started with the analysis of Japanese foreign policy-making patterns, and overviewed the features of Japan's Policy towards China during the Cold War. Then, it extended to analyze the impact that Japanese nongovernmental elements made for government's policy-making to China during 1952-1972.The second chapter examined the background of normalization of Sino-Japanese relations during Cold War, and analyzed the reason why post-war Sino-Japanese official contact delayed over 20 years. San Francisco Peace Treaty cut off the channel of Sino-Japanese official communication, the signing of it means Japan recognized Taiwan as the legitimate Chinese government. But in fact, Japan also wanted to maintain economic relations with mainland China; as a result, it formatted "political and economic separation" policy towards China. Under this kind of consideration, the Japan's nongovernmental individuals and civil society ties with China became the main force who maintained the channels of developing Sino-Japanese friendly relations.From the third chapter, it began to present the influence that nongovernmental elements made for Japan's policy-making towards China in various historical periods. This chapter first analyzed four Cabinet's policy towards China. Then it continued with a case-study in order to explain what kind of role the main actors of nongovernmental elements played in affecting Japan's policy-making towards China.The fourth chapter analyzed the development and failure process of Japanese "political and economic separation" policy towards China. In the early 1960s, Japanese government realized the limitation of way that put aside bilateral political relations to develop Sino-Japanese trade and it strengthened the government involvement in Sino-Japanese trade. Therefore in this period, friendly trade and LT trade were established, and the Sino-Japanese nongovernmental economic exchanges developed steadily. At the meantime, the group of Kenzo Matsumura in LDP boarded on the stage of history, they formed multi-party coalition with the Socialist Party and Komei Party, who gradually affected the government's policy-making towards China in LDP. In the late 1960s, influenced by Cultural Revolution and Japanese wrong policy towards China made by Prime Minister Eisaku Sato, Sino-Japanese trade displayed political tendency and the debate of "political and economic indivisible" vs. "political and economic separation" intensified. At the same time, the negative policy-making towards China was constantly challenged, which means that the social base of normalization of Sino-Japanese relations came into being.The fifth chapter mainly analyzed the transition process of Japan's policy-making towards China during 1971-1972 and the normalization of Sino-Japanese relations at that time. In this period, China and Japan faced enormous changes of international background: China resumed the lawful seat in UN and Japan has developed into a major economic contradiction with US, moreover, China and US were also threatened by Soviet militarily. At last, the approach of Sino-US, with the influence of financial pressure groups and public opinion from domestic, made impact to the transition of Japan's policy-making towards China, and the normalization of Sino-Japanese relations finally attained in September the 29th of 1972. The main nongovernmental elements during that period were opposition parties and financial sector, they worked together with Japanese government for normalization of Sino-Japanese relations and promoted the development of official relations between China and Japan directly.From the sixth chapter, it broke the boundaries of history division and mainly analyzed the characteristics of different nongovernmental elements in Japan. In this chapter, first of all it examined the main features of nongovernmental elements. The normalization of relations between China and Japan are different from other countries which depend on diplomatic negotiations, on the contrary it chose to raise level of bilateral exchanges by nongovernmental or semi-governmental way, which was a natural development process. From the Japanese point of view, the business people and the group of Kenzo Matsumura in LDP which were on behalf of nongovernmental status played an invaluable role; compared to the passive Japanese Foreign Ministry and the LDP government, the Japanese opposition parties had extensive contacts with China and criticized LDP's policy toward China, who also played a positive role in promoting the normalization of Sino-Japanese relations; and so as to the influences of public opinion and media in Japan. In this chapter, it carried out an overall analyze about characteristics of nongovernmental elements in different period and the effects assessment.The seventh chapter analyzed the patterns nongovernmental elements acted. It could be divided into indirect way and direct way roughly. Indirect way (Extra-system way), like signed economic agreements with China, visited China, published opinion to support normalization of Sino-Japanese relations etc., could stronger the social foundation of normalization of Sino-Japanese relations and give a certain pressure to government's policy-making towards China, which are the main patterns nongovernmental elements played in that period of history. Then, direct way was made by "pro-China" forces like the group of Kenzo Matsumura in LDP and opposition parties in Congress, which could influence government's decision-making directly, but the effect of this kind of way was quite limited.Finally, the conclusion analyzed the function nongovernmental elements made in development of Sino-Japanese relations, as well as the trends that nongovernmental elements will play more and more important role in diplomacy in the era of globalization.
Keywords/Search Tags:nongovernmental elements, Japan, policy towards China, Sino-Japanese relations, influence
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