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A Cross-Cultural Research On Goal Orientation In Sport, Body Esteem, Social Physique Anxiety, Subjective Well-being Among Han And Uygur College And Middle School Students

Posted on:2008-09-21Degree:DoctorType:Dissertation
Country:ChinaCandidate:J M YangFull Text:PDF
GTID:1117360212491467Subject:Human Movement Science
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With the development of society, students' mental health has been given equal importance with their physical health now. Under the circumstance, it is essential to protect and restore students' mental health in all kinds of ways. With regard to the development of physical education in China, it is an inexorable trend to set up the directive thought--"health, the first", and focus on students' development of mental health people-orientedly. However, it is quite weak to protect students' mental health in P.E. lessons. At the same time, China is a polyethnic country, critical importance should be attached to the cross-cultural study of mental health education. Uygur is the primary ethnic group, to study the differences between the Uygur and Han students in the aspect of mental health is to test the universality and uniqueness of psychological theories, and provide evidence for deepening the university and high school students' mental health education. Therefore, the research picks up the four indexes--goal orientation, body self-esteem, social physique anxiety, subjective well-being, closely relevant to students' mental health, adopts various research methods such as: questionnaire, experiments and so on to carry out the cross-cultural analysis, trying to understand the ethnic differences from the view of crosswise and lengthwise in the multi-index system and find out the correlation among the indexes. The research falls into the following parts:The first part presents the aims and significance of the research.The second part serves as the literature review. In this part, the author reviews, generalizes, and categorizes systematically and respectively the goal orientation, body self-esteem, social physique, and subjective well-being.The third part touches upon the research methodology. 3000 Uygur and Han students from universities and high schools in Xinjiang and some Han students from universities and high schools in other cities and provinces are sampled randomly. The questionnaires TEOSQ, SPAS,PSPP, and GWB are used to test the subjects, and from the view of cross-culture, the author adopts diverse statistical methods to compare the similarities and differences, and analyze the reasons why there exist such differences. Through the comparison and the analysis, the conclusions can be found as follows: Goal Orientation(1) Whether the subjects are Uygur or Han students, male or females students, urban or rural students, the scores of their goal orientation demonstrate the same tendency, that is, the scores of task-orientation are higher than the self-orientation, there exists a significant difference.(2) On the whole, the subjects show a highly significant difference in the ethnic main effect. In the two dimensions of goal orientation, Han students' scores are higher than Uygur students'; in the dimension of task-orientation, there doesn't exist significant difference between male Han students and male Uygur students or between urban Han students and urban Uygur students, the scores of Han middle school students are lower than Uygur's, but the difference is not significant.(3) The male students' task-orientation and self-orientation are higher than the female students', the difference is significant. However, there is no gender difference in the task-orientation and self-orientation among Han studentsts, the gender difference is significant among Uygur students.(4) There is a significant grade difference in the index of task-orientation between the middle school, high school and college students, that is, the task-orientation and self -orientation decline evidently during the process of learning in middle school, while in the college years, the task-orientation and self-orientation increase. The trend can be found in the two aspects of ethnicity and gender.(5) There is no significant difference in the goal-orientation between the urban and rural students. With regard to task-orientation, urban Han students are lower than the rural counterparts, urban Uygur students are higher than the rural counterparts, and the differences are both significant.Body Self-Esteem(1) The ethnic differences in body self-esteem is significant, that is to say, Uygur students are more concerned with their body self-esteem, appearance, weight and stature than Han students. However, there doesn't exist differences in the body self-esteem among the college students no matter whether they are Uygurs or Hans. (2) The male students' body self-esteem is clearly higher than the female students'. There is no ethnic difference in the gender main effect. There doesn't exist gender difference in the body self-esteem between the middle school and college Uygur students.(3) Juvenile students' body self-esteem decline as they enter a higher grade in middle school, that is to say, the self-evaluation on physiques of students in middle schools is clearly higher than that of students in high schools and colleges, and the difference is significant. However, there is no significant difference between high school students and college students.(4) There is no significant difference in the body self-esteem between the urban students and rural students. However, the urban Uygur students' are higher than the rural Uygur students', the differences demonstrated in the four inventories are significant.Social Physique Anxiety(1) Uygur students' social physique anxiety is higher than Han students', and the difference is significant.(2) Female students' social physique anxiety is higher than male students' no matter whether they are Uygurs or Hans, the difference is significant.(3) Students' social physique anxiety develops in a line of camel-back in the mass, that is, students' social physique anxiety increase from middle school to high school, and decline during the period of college years. The significant difference only exists in the period of middle school and high school.(4) There is no geographical difference in Han students' social physique anxiety, while in Uygur students' the urban is lower than the rural, the difference is significant. Subjective Well-being(1) There exists the ethnic difference in the subjective well-being with Han students higher than Uygur students.(2) As far as the scores of well-being are concerned, male students' are clearly higher than female students', however, when the variable ethnicity is taken into consideration, the gender difference is not significant. (3) As for the main effect of variable grade, although the scores of subjective well-being decline as the students enter a higher grade, the difference is not significant.(4) Urban students' subjective well-being is higher than the rural students', but there is no significant difference in Han students.The analysis of the four indexes shows that although task-orientation and self-orientation demonstrate the "direct effect" on subjective well-being, they influence subjective well-being by means of the two variables, body self-esteem and social physique anxiety.The fourth part introduces an experimental research. Ten classes of Uygurs or Hans are chosen from middle schools and universities, two kinds of teaching with different motivational climates are adopted in the ten classes to investigate whether the motivational climate affect the four indexes, goal orientation, social physique anxiety, body self-esteem, and subjective well-being or not. With classroom atmosphere as the independent variable, Ames' teaching model (TARGET) as the instruction, the author tries to construct the study climate and the achievement climate. The following conclusions are drawn from the 8-week experimental teaching:(1) Motivational climate can change the students' goal orientation, social physique anxiety, body self-esteem, and subjective well-being. Study climate teaching can raise students' task-orientation, body self-esteem, and subjective well-being; achievement climate contributes to increase students' self-orientation and social physique anxiety.(2) There are no grade difference and ethnic difference in the motivational climate as the main effect.The fifth part sums up the research, probes the existing problems in the research, and outlooks the research prospect of the four indexes in the field of physical education.
Keywords/Search Tags:Han and Uygur Nationalities of Students, Goal Orientation, Body Self-Esteem, Social Physique Anxiety, Subjective Well-being, Cross-Cultural Study
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