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Diplomacy Of Chinese Communist Party: Theory, Practice And Experience

Posted on:2012-01-21Degree:DoctorType:Dissertation
Country:ChinaCandidate:X H ShiFull Text:PDF
GTID:1486303353452044Subject:Chinese Communist Party
Abstract/Summary:PDF Full Text Request
The narrow concept of diplomacy based on the traditional idea that sovereign state is the body of diplomacy has changed due to the accelerated development of globalization. To understand diplomacy from a broad sense has become a trend in the research field at home and abroad since the cold war. Parliaments, parties, and non-governmental organizations have slowly become the new body of diplomacy. In the modern society, because the party is the controller of state power, the party is not only the core of domestic politically stage, but also the leader of international politically stage. Therefore, the party diplomacy becomes more unique in the role of the state's overall diplomacy. Party diplomacy belongs to the sphere of party politics. To study party diplomacy deeper can better understand its unique role in dominant and international politics. Since the founding of PRC, it has been over sixty years for the CPC's party diplomacy. To systematically summarize this great vicissitude and to draw the necessary lessons has a greater realistic significance for a responsible ruling political party who rules from a close to an open condition.This study, based on historical, referential, and comparison approaches, reviewed the CPC's party diplomacy from theory and experience. Then a summarize research was conducted the process of the CPC's party diplomacy over the past 60 years. Finally, the experiences and lessons were drawn. There were six sections, including introduction, four chapters of the main bodies, and conclusions. The introduction reviewed the basis of choosing this topic, objective, and the research status quo on domestic and overseas. Also, the novelty and problems were shown in this section.The first main section discussed the origins, contents, and characters of the party diplomacy. Furthermore, the definition, characters and the influential factors were addressed. Party diplomacy, a concept originating from multiple-body of state diplomacy, belonged to a broad sense of state diplomacy and a vital part of state integrate diplomacy. It is flexible in form, extensive in content, forward-looking in goal. Party diplomacy can advance the state overall development, to lay foundations of good international relationships, to publicize the party image. During political party diplomacy, the rules should follow:four basic principles of independence, complete equality, mutual respect, and noninterference in each other's internal affairs; protecting national interests; double-winning and non-drawing lines according to ideology.The factors that impacted party's political diplomacy included:First, the international environments had great influences on the acts of political party. The international environments directly affected the room of the non-ruling party's action and also affected the ruling ability for the ruling party. National political factors, such as state interest and the state political and lawful system played more roles. Without competitive political party system, the communist party in each communist country took the ruling power. Moreover, the constitution laid down the ruling position for the communist party in the country. There were more coincides between the political parties and the state's diplomacy in communist countries than in the western countries. With a competitive political system, the parties of outs versus ins co-existed in the western countries. Due to the existence of the opposition parties, a strong constraint would be met when practicing the ruling party's political diplomacy, therefore, the political diplomacy in the western countries played weaker role than in one-party country. Second, economic factors also played important roles in political diplomacy. On one hand, the degrees of openness enhanced by the economic globalization have brought about a favorable external environment for China's political party diplomacy. On the other hand, we need to be vigilant against the peaceful evolution of socialist countries towards capitalism by cultural pedagogy of values and ideology. Third, the ways of the party's communications have been impacted by an increasing number of political parties, the broad establishments of international political parties, and the popularization and evolution of party politics.In addition, the political party leader's quality will to a great extent influences the party's events. In the western countries, two-party and multi-party systems would affect the position of the ruling and non-ruling parties. By contrast, one-party system would play a positive or negative role in state politics and economic developments. Also, the ideology could be an important factor that impacts political party diplomacy, which was most obvious in the opposing camps of capitalism and communism during the cold war.The second section was to address the origin and development of CPC's political party diplomacy. This thesis addressed the thoughts of classic writers Marx, Engels, and Lenin, the theories of the working class ruling party, and the ideas of several CCP leaders after the founding of the People's Republic, by which the theoretical ordinate set could be created for the study of political party diplomacy. In terms of how the working class ruling party to deal with international relationships, the founders of scientific socialism Marx and Engels proposed a series of principles:principle of upholding nationalism in the union of working class ruling parties; principle of fighting for joint and harmony among the democratic political parties across the world; principle of independence as the primary during the consideration of international contact. Based on the ideas of Marx and Engels, Lenin thought that the Russian revolution cannot be consolidated without the help from international working classes. The basic prerequisite for revolution was the international union of working classes. The oppressed nations were the ally of the working classes and their parties. The independence of each nation and party needs to be concerned.Since Stalin became the true leader of Soviet Union and the international communist movement, the great-party doctrine and the great-nation doctrine tended to be gradually obvious. The Soviet Communist Party controlled the Communist International and forced the communist party in each country to subordinate to the interests of the Soviet Union. After the demise of the Communist International, the Soviet Union socialism model was promoting to other communist parties and countries. As a patriarchal and a ruling party, the Soviet Communist Party became demandingly dominant over other communist parties and social countries, and meddled in their affairs without respect, resulting in evil influences for the international communist movement. Consequently, rising fighting for independence and total equality among parties grew. In particularly, Communists of Yugoslavia, Italia, and Romania made the greatest progress. All of these theoretical achievements from the working classes were the origins of the CPC's political party diplomacy.Since the founding of the People's Republic, the first generation of the communists led by Mao Zedong co-constructed Mao Zedong has attached great importance to the exchanges with foreign countries, and the theories of independence, mutual equality, and internationalism begun to take shape at the same time. Inl978. The second generation of the communists led by Deng Xiaoping adjusted in time the political party diplomacy strategy conforming to the trend of the times and incorporated inter (national) situation. The complete theory of political party diplomacy with four principles at the core was proposed. After the hard work by three leading generations, a new chapter in history of political party diplomacy from all directions has begun. Entering the beginning of new century, the scientific concepts of development and building harmonious society proposed by the new leaders has injected new vitality in the political party diplomacy.I believed that political party, as the main body of diplomatic behaviors, had different identities at different times and constructed it in interaction with others, or strengthened or weakened. Different identities would also directly affected the options of political party strategies and tactics. Thus, in the third part of this thesis, the experiences of political party diplomacy over the sixty past years since the founding of the People's Republic has been reviewed by utilizing the identity theory of international relationships. The theoretical assumptions were:different identities impacted the main body's action option; the CPC's identities had changed greatly at different times; The identity at different time decided the options and changes of political party strategies and tactics. This part was the innovation of this paper. Based on the articulation points of 1978 and 2002, the CPC's sixty years process of political party diplomacy was further subdivided into three stages, i.e., from the founding of the People's Republic to reform and opening-up (1949—1978), after reform and opening-up (1978—2002)?in the new century(2002—present).From the founding of the People's Republic to reform and opening-up, the CPC's assessment of the theme of the era was war and revolution. Under the influence of the environments at home and abroad, the CPC's revolution in thinking still existed and its identity was a ruling political party to continue revolution. As a result, ideological factors still played a vital role in CPC's political party diplomacy. In1978, because of the continued relaxation of international situation, the CPC thought that peace and development became the main theme of the time and the CPC's identity turned to be the ruling political party to lead the reform and open-up. To adapt to the new identity, the CPC made big re-adjustments of strategies of political party diplomacy and proposed the theory of a new relationship among parties, such as weakening ideology, obeying and serving national political benefit, making a contribution to the socialist economic construction, etc. Since the new generation of CPC leaders came into power, great progress in reform and open-up has made and China economic strength has been rising rapidly. China has become an important power at the international stage. The CPC's identity was a ruling political party for a responsible country. Thus, to adjust the new identity, a complete new concept was proposed by CPC for building up a harmonious society at home and a harmonious world at abroad. The political party diplomacy tended to be institutionalization and its role in globalization has strengthened.The fourth section of this thesis reviewed the historical experiences of CPC's political party diplomacy. Independence was not only in conformity with dialectics materialism, but also the specific expressions of theory of materialism. It was also a basic historical experience of CPC's political party diplomacy. Patriotism and internationalism both relate mutually and opposes mutually, which combination was the basic starting point of CPC's political party diplomacy. It was both a review and a prerequisite and for developing political party diplomacy in the new century to treat correctly the ideology. Defending the national interest was to safeguard the legitimacy basis. The strategy of sizing up the situation and adjusting immediately political party diplomacy is an important experience, and the oretical innovation is the source of keeping it alive.
Keywords/Search Tags:the Communist Party of China (CPC), identity, political party diplomacy, experience
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