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The Livelihood Resilience Construction Of The Relocated Immigrants From Inhospitable Areas

Posted on:2021-12-27Degree:DoctorType:Dissertation
Country:ChinaCandidate:A C WeiFull Text:PDF
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The research topic of this paper was the construction logic and law of the livelihood resilience of the relocation of immigrants in the context of the livelihood mode and its changes.As a way of poverty management,the construction of livelihood resilience plays a significant role in the fight against poverty by integrating process,resilience,adaptability,transformation,innovation and relationship.Previous studies have suggested that:first,the study of living resilience focused on cross-sectional analysis,which explored whether living resilience existed by studying individual abilities and traits.Secondly,through the process of event occurrence and deduction,the study of livelihood resilience started from the vertical level,and the adaptive strategy was considered from the time clue,to explore what livelihood resilience was.Through the analysis of the existing literature,it was found that many researchers carried out studies on living resilience based on factor standpoint and process standpoint,and formed two kinds of guidance.One was based on threshold value,which determined whether the system returned to the original state in the shortest feasible period.The other was to use the conceptual framework of livelihood resilience to discuss the ability of the dynamic composition of livelihood capital to sustain or enhance livelihood opportunities and to guide local practice.The revelatory significance of the above point of view is that current studies on livelihood resilience should focus on why it is so and how to build it,rather than whether it exists or what it is.Livelihood resilience focuses on the actor as an independent functional entity,and analyzes which key factors or carriers the action subject uses to deal with the adversity,and focuses on how the actor changes from a relatively low state of balance to another high state of balance.Therefore,this paper focused on the fact that how to deal with adversity in the subsequent development of the relocation of poverty alleviation?The main theoretical problem discussed is that,on account of the livelihood resilience is a process of continuous construction,what kind of strength is the livelihood resilience built of the relocated immigrants from inhospitable areas?What is the logic and law of the construction of livelihood resilience?What about the ultimate modality of livelihood resilience?This paper explained the action logic and law of poverty relief and relocation immigrants by constructing analyzing path of the livelihood resilience construction mechanism.Livelihood resilience is the combination of ability and process,which is an ability structure combinating of endogenous ability and external resources of the actor,it is not only the combination of mental and physical strength of the actor,but also the bearing of various social networks.At the horizontal level,livelihood resilience can be transformed into natural exchange ability,market exchange ability and social exchange ability.At the vertical level,livelihood resilience includes two processes of self-adaptation and dynamic transformation.Natural exchange ability refers to the ability to exchange with the nature for the immigrants in the relocation of poverty alleviation;market exchange ability refers to the ability to exchange with other subjects through the market mechanism for the immigrants in the relocation of poverty alleviation;social exchange ability refers to the interaction ability between the formal social network and the informal social network for the immigrants in the relocation of poverty alleviation.Self-adaptation refers to the adaptation to the changing environment by the reproduction and transformation of productive factors,and keeping the stable development in the current environment.Dynamic transformation refers to that immigrants regard crisis as an opportunity,on the basis of copying and transforming productive factors,they recombine their own experience and knowledge to transition from one stable state to another.The three kinds of exchange capacities affect and interact with each other,and work together to build the livelihood resilience of the migrants.The two processes are progressing step by step,presenting the construction process of the high level of livelihood resilience of the relocation immigrants.With the aid of the analysis path of livelihood resilience construction this paper selected the relocation site for poverty alleviation in inhospitable areas of M town in eastern Chongqing as the field investigation site.In the actual investigation,the author found that the relocation immigrants adopted short distance swing,long distance swing and mixed swing to cope with poverty after moving into the settlement site.In the analysis and narration of the three kinds of moving households,this paper explained the action practice and the construction law of livelihood resilience of the relocation immigrants in different vulnerable areas.In the short distance swing,the farm-oriented and trading-oriented households built the survivable livelihood resilience.Livelihood resilience refers to,due to the poor family labor quantity and quality,short distance swinging relocated households are difficult to get access to capital income through the "working outside purly",also hard to formate resultant force between intergeneration by"half work half plow",they are in the weak state of the allocation of resources about natural exchange capacity,market exchange capacity,social exchange capacity and self-adaptation and dynamic transformation,resulting their livelihood resilience construction based on the basic survival,which belongs to survivable livelihood resilience.In the process of building survivable livelihood resilience,short distance swinging relocated households adopt self-protection strategies.They were more willing to deal with adversity by relying on themselves and distrusting others,presenting a conservative,diversified and lacking of initiative and significant dependence on the characteristics of anti-stress actions.In the self-adaptation phase,this relocated households adapted to the external environment to enhance natural exchange capacity with "small and exquisite" mode of production,and coped with market environment improve market exchange capacity by selling traditional agricultural products,the physical work and so on,and increased social exchange ability relying on the self as the main line,trusting the "government" and "family" as the auxiliary power growth,so they constructed the survivable livelihood resilience meeting food and clothing.In the dynamic transformation stage,they took low specialization production mode to enhance natural exchange capacity by imitating others,and improved market exchange capacity by a small amount of agricultural productive investment,selling a small-scale modern economic crops,technical task and so on,and increased social exchange ability relying on exchange of limited intangible resources in the "new" geopolitical relations,so they built survivable livelihood resilience of somewhat balance.During the long distance swing,the pure migrant workers built the developmental livelihood resilience.The developmental livelihood resilience refers to that the pure migrant households can maintain the normal operation and reproduction of the family through independent employment and entrepreneurship,but it is difficult to achieve the construction goal of healthy livelihood resilience in a short period of time.The higher market exchange ability and social exchange ability work together to the poverty of the pure migrant households,and finally urge them to build the developmental livelihood resilience.In the process of building developmental livelihood resilience,the long-distance swing households adopted the strategy of selective dependence on others,which presented the characteristic of resilience action of autonomy.In the stage of self-adaptation,these households adapted to the existing environment through informal employment to improve the market exchange capacity,and increased the social exchange capacity by emotional interaction between the kinship relationship and limited geographical relationship,thus building the developmental livelihood resilience with a slight balance.In the dynamic transformation stage,they actively improved their market exchange ability through independent employment and entrepreneurship,market operational investment and so on,and actively increased their social exchange ability by expanding the differential pattern network based on benefit infiltration,so as to build the developmental livelihood resilience with abundant food and clothing.In the mixed swing,the coexistence of agriculture and labor built a healthy livelihood resistance.The healthy livelihood resilience refers to the fact that farmers and workers living together can not only realize the family development by themselves,but also actively expand external favorable resources and improve the family development ability.Their natural exchange ability,market exchange ability,social exchange ability as well as self-adaptation and dynamic transformation are in the best state,and they interact with each other to jointly contribute to the construction of healthy livelihood resilience.In the process of building healthy livelihood resilience,the hybrid swinging households adopted the most flexible and socially healthy strategy,which presented the characteristics of resistance action of organization,cooperation,diversification of exchange strategies and diversification of cooperative subjects.In the stage of self-adaptation,this households evaded natural risk to enhance natural exchange capacity with "big and pure" mode of production,and improved the market exchange capacity through independent sale scale of traditional agricultural products,insufficient employment,informal employment and so on,and increased social exchange capacity with relatively complete interactive relationship to have access to resources,so they built the healthy livelihood resilience with abundant food and clothing.In the dynamic transformation stage,for a better living condition,they took highly specialized production to cope with change of external environment to enhance natural exchange capacity,and sold scale modern economic crops through cooperation,agricultural productive investment,technical task,independent employment and entrepreneurship,business investment to maximize market exchange capacity,and active construction more complete relationship to grow social exchange capacity,so they constructed the healthy livelihood resilience with rich and abundant.Based on the above analysis,this paper intends to emphasize that:first,livelihood resilience is not a single endogenous ability or external endowing ability,but a capability structure composed of multiple parts.At the horizontal level,livelihood resilience is a collection of natural exchange ability,market exchange ability and social exchange ability.On the vertical level,living resilience is the progressive process of self-adaptation and dynamic transformation.Second,the study of living resilience should be a comprehensive discussion combining static analysis of ability with dynamic analysis,focusing on how to resist risks when the subject encounters adversity,how to return to the original state and adapt to the current environment,and how to enter a new state of development on the basis of adaptation.Thirdly,the action subject of livelihood resilience construction should change from single individual to multiple subjects,and attention should be paid to the significant effect of the initiative of the material entity itself as a "quasi-actor" on livelihood resilience construction.Fourth,there is a close relationship between the resilience strategies,resilience actions and resilience building rules of the relocated immigrants.Based on their individual differences,they choose different resilience strategies,present different resilience actions,and construct different levels of livelihood resilience.Fifth,for the poverty alleviation relocation immigrants,the higher their production scale and the degree of specialization,the degree of product commercialization,market participation,call ability of relationship resources and the trustrank,the higher their natural exchange capacity,market exchange capacity,and social exchange capacity and the coupling between each other,finally the level of livelihood resilience construction is higher.Sixth,livelihood resilience construction can not only promote the sustainable livelihood of poor groups,but also affect the development of agriculture and rural society to some extent In order to realize poverty alleviation and rural revitalization at an early date,we should continue to build livelihood resilience.
Keywords/Search Tags:livelihood resilience, relocation of poor immigrants from inhospitable areas, survivable livelihood resilience, developmental livelihood resilience, healthy livelihood resilience
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