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Inheritance And Development: Reform Of Physical Education In Elementary Education For 30 Years (1979-2009)

Posted on:2013-12-10Degree:DoctorType:Dissertation
Country:ChinaCandidate:L ZhaoFull Text:PDF
GTID:1107330467452911Subject:Curriculum and pedagogy
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Physical Education is an important part of school education. during the30years since China’s reforming and opening to the outside world, how does the physical education system evolve? What experience and lessons can be generalized? What implication can be obtained? Based on curriculum theory and teaching theory, using the methods of literature analysis and historical comparison writer tracks back the development of physical education teaching in the30years, to show its evolutionary process, to unveil the success and weakness in the reform of physical education, and to preview the future of physical education teaching. The research results:In the thesis, the thirty-year evolutionary process of physical education is divided into three phases:the phase of recovery and rebuild (1978-1984), the phase of introducing and borrowing of foreign experience (1985-1999) and the phase of inheritance and development (2000-2009). In reviewing these three phases, under the macroscopic social circumstance, the following aspects are analyzed respectively in three phases:the orientation of teaching goals, the selection of teaching contents, the selection of teaching methods, and the way of teaching evaluation, to show the change of the physical education system. In the initial stage of reform and opening-up,"the body" being the target of education, teaching contents, teaching methods and teaching evaluation are designed to strengthen physical fitness which lacks care for student as a whole person. During the period between the initial stage and the end of1990s, with the emphasis on quality education, the development of the person himself gains more attention. The teaching contents, teaching methods and teaching evaluation are designed to the development of physical health, mental health, and social interaction ability. In the first ten years of the21st century, new curriculum emphasizes student-centered, whole person development. The teaching contents, teaching methods and teaching evaluation focus on students as the subject. The physical education gradually change its focus to the development of the students as a person.The survey of the thirty year evolution process of physical in basic education, some evolution characteristics can be generalized. the physical education theory changes from borrowing foreign experience to the accomplishment of comparative independence. The teaching goals change from society-oriented to individual-oriented. The selection of teaching contents changes from prescriptive contents to to the combination of unitary and flexibility. The teaching methods changes from teacher-centered teaching to inter-subjectivity-centered teaching. The teaching evaluation changes from summative evaluation to formative evaluation. However, there are still some weakness. The physical education theory is without much distinguished features of itself. The actual operation of physical education is misunderstood. The physical education teachers’professional development hasn’t been emphasized much. In the process of improving scientific character of teaching activities and teaching quality, pursuing humanistic teaching, cultivating students through physical education has always been focused. However, the focus varies in different historical phases and some important elements are once neglected. Considering the full and whole development of a person as the essential part of physical education activities, and the irreplaceable role of physical education in this cultivation, the vale of physical education must be insisted.The review of the thirty year evolution history of physical education, some implications are obtained. Firstly, physical education is dynamic process of change from reality to ideal. The forward of physical education evolution is motivated by both the social development and teacher development. Teachers are the internal pushers. Secondly, teaching reform must under the guidance of theory. Only by basing on contemporary issues and local reality, can the physical education theory be formed with its own subject characteristic. Thirdly, in order to be more successful, the physical education reform must happen in theory and action. With the teachers being the executors, they are the key of reform. Teachers should insist the people-oriented education theory, perfect teaching from observing how students learn, improve professional development and sense the value of life together with students in the process of teaching.Generally speaking, physical education class provides student with opportunities to enjoy themselves, build up health, lay a foundation for lifelong education. It plays an irreplaceable role in the basic education, in which teachers shoulder an important responsibility. Therefore,, there is still much work for physical education teachers to do in the reform of physical education teaching in basic education.
Keywords/Search Tags:China’s reforming and opening to the outside world, basic education, physical education, educational reform
PDF Full Text Request
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