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Research On Marx's Political Ethics Thought

Posted on:2010-12-30Degree:DoctorType:Dissertation
Country:ChinaCandidate:Y H TaoFull Text:PDF
GTID:1116360275467586Subject:Marxist theory and ideological and political education
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Marx's political thought is the important source of Marxism ideas, and also the important theoretical basis of the building of socialist political modernization. Whether Marx's political thought implies ethical demands or in other words whether Marx has political ethical thought and what kind of political ethical thought is not only related to a complete understanding of the principles and approaches of Marxism, but also related to the explanatory and guidance power of Marxism in the contemporary context of calling for fairness and justice. Practically, it is related to the value orientation and policy operation of the building of socialist politics with Chinese characteristics.Marx does not explicitly put forward the concept of political ethics. However, there exists abundant ethical demands and value concern in his political views and political ideas. As a result, he has substantial political ethics thought. Ethics pursuit is not the dominant discourse of Marx's political thought, but the value implication of Marx's political thought. It is this pursuit of ethics and values implication that infuses the humanities temperament into Marx's political thought and is the thinking matrix for Marx's political thought coming into the modern political life. The opening of Marx's thought of political Ethics not only is the theoretical demands of a complete understanding of Marx's political thought, but also the practical needs in responding to the expectations and challenges of the era that gives to Marxism. The above mentioned is just the value and goal of this title.From the starting point of the people in the realistic class society, Marx's political ethics thought pursues relatively reasonable and fair political relations in order to achieve maximization of human liberation in the state of the political life by a means of the political system of justice. At the same time, Marx believes that the class and state is the prerequisite for politics, which has the illusory nature concerning the benefits for the individuals, consequently has become the constraints of the free development of people. Therefore, in order to achieve the total liberation of the people, that is, free and comprehensive development of people, we must make public power lose the political nature. Based on this, Marx implements the transcendence of the ethical value of politics in pursuit the communism as the final goal. Antonio Gramsci, Italian Marxist, has pointed out: "If people attempt to study the birth of a view of the world that was never stated systematically by its founder ... ... we must first reproduce the development process of the thought of the thinker." This idea is extremely consistent with the study of Marx's political ethics thought. Accordingly, the development of Marx's political ethics thought is the opening part of this article, which combs Marxist political thought ethics from the vertical perspective. The main thrust of the setting of this chapter is to highlight the content of the thought of the different periods and provide the basis of the history of thought in order to grasp Marx's political ethics thought from the system for the latter parts, therefore, the delineation of the period of thought only has relative significance.The main line of the spirit which runs through Marx's political thought is the strong humanistic concern and ethical pursuit which regards the total liberation of mankind as the ultimate aim. In the period of idealism, Marx pursues the rationalization of the world order from the starting point of the rationality. During this period, the basic framework of Marx's political ethics thought has already developed, including the starting point, the theoretical foundation, as well as a concrete manifestation of main content. In the time of the change from idealism to materialism, Marx recognizes the weakness of idealism rationality, begins to seek more effective scientific proof. Based on the critique of Hegel's idealism view of the state, Marx describes the national ethics, human nature, human kinds' liberation. In the period of materialism, Marx finally finds the inevitable argument of moral norms, and establishes the scientific evidence for his own pursuit of ideals through the discovery of historical materialism. Marx further demonstrates the essence of people, as well as the historical status of people, special interests and the common interests, the relationship between the individual and the collective, and reveals the ethical values of communism based on an analysis of the historical inevitability of communism.The ethics concern of the subject of the politics is the starting point of Marx's political ethics thought, and also the basic premise and the main basis of the subject of value judgments on political relations as well as the pursuit of justice of the political system. Real people are the starting point and the end result of Marx's political thought. Real people are the sum of social relations that are manifested in a form of the subject of the class in the political society. Marx gives the deepest sympathy and moral support to the vast majority of the ruled class in the country of the exploiting class. Based on the times, the political subject which Marx focused on is the proletariat. Marx not only reveals "social bottom" status of the proletariat and describes the living conditions of "the appearance of loss of human nature" of the proletariat, and gives a great deal of attention to the final historical fate of the proletariat and provides the theoretical preparation and practical guidance to the liberation of the proletariat. Besides that, focusing on all of the humanity, Marx regards the liberation of humanity, that is, free and comprehensive development of people, as ultimate pursuit of value, and demonstrates the inevitable correlation between the proletarian liberation and human liberation.The value judgments on political relations is the basic elements of Marx's political ethics thought, and also the basic arrangements for the theory and social conditions of realizing the ethical concern of political subjects and justice arrangements of the political system.Marx attaches great importance to the analysis of the relationship and the essence of things as well as the ethical connotations which relations embody. In the analysis of political relations, Marx demonstrates a strong sense of moral judgments and ethical pursuit. Marx believes that the relationship between the individual and society is one of mutual creation, interdependence, mutual limiting, mutual reinforcing, while the individual and the society is in extreme antagonism under private ownership, and thus is immoral; the relationship between country and society is the objective environment for the liberation of the people. Marx describes the depriving of the personality and freedom of the people which brings about by the coincidence between the society and the country in the ancient society and the duality of human life under the capitalist conditions, and argues inevitable pursuit of the country reverting to the society. Marx believes that the relations of political power which is set up in private ownership is unreasonable and political power relations which is set up in public ownership is of the legitimacy, and that political power relations in which the minority of people rules the majority is immoral and political power relations in which the majority rules the minority has the relative moral rationality, and that fundamentally speaking, the relationship of political power itself is unreasonable. To achieve the true and complete rationality and fairness of humankind, we need to make public power lose the political nature. Political rights also imply the relations with other people and the country, mainly in the implementation form of freedom, equality and democracy. Freedom, equality and democracy are of the historic nature, which can be truly achieved in the communist society("The highest stage of Communist society").The pursuit of justice of political system is the ending result of Marx's political ethics thought, and the path of the reality and means of implementation of the ethics pursuit of the political subject and the value pursuit of political relations.The political system is the product of the contacts of political subjects in political society. Justice is the eternal theme of human society. Marx describes the ideas of justice based on historical materialism in the criticism of the abstract justice described by the former thinkers and the opening of the hypocrisy of the social justice in the capitalist society. In Marx's view, the just demands of the political system embody in two ways, the promotion of people's liberation and the development of productive forces. Starting from this, Marx believes that the feudal political system deprived the people of the nature of being mankind and at the same time impeded the development of productive forces and the progress of the history, and that capitalist political system one hand promotes people's liberation and the development of productive forces, on the other hand restricted people's liberation and the development of productive forces, and that socialist political systems("The first stage of Communist society") shows a greater degree of justice than the old system in the aspect of people's liberation and the promotion of the development of productive forces, but the justice is still historical and has limitations. In the political system, people are bound to be limited by "illusory communities" such as the country and class. Therefore, human liberation can not be realized fundamentally. Only in communist society("The highest stage of Communist society"), when the productivity is greatly improved, the natural division of labor is eliminated and class and the country does not exist, does the political system lose the nature of class oppression and truly become the social system of justice. The assessment of Marx's political ethics thought is the summary of the full text, including the analysis of the characteristics of Marx's political ethics thought, the grasp of the essence keeping with the times and the revealing of the significance in the research.Marx's political ethics thought has distinct and unique characteristics of thought. The political discourses such as class struggle, state ruling, seizing of power, violent revolution are the dominant discourse and imply abundant ethical spirit and moral pursuit; Marx's political ethics thought is not only judgments of ethical value based on reality and the results of the analysis of the norms, but also the inevitable and positive trend of development of human society; The theme of Marx's political ethics thought is to seek human liberation and the means of implementation is the institutional change in which institutional ethics is emphasized."The thought can not come across the history". Marx's political ethics thought is the ideology of a particular era and naturally has the limitations of the times. The main limitations of this type are compared with the changes in capitalist society. At the same time, Marx's political ethics thought has taken root in the capitalist society. As long as there exists the capitalist society, Marx's political ethics thought has its value and meaning, which is embodied in its transcendence of the times, which is compared with the essential characteristics of the capitalist society.Heilbroner, the American scholar, argues that we resort to Marx because we should not evade him. As the value dimension of Marx's political thought, Marxist political ethics thought is an important part of Marx's thought. The inquiring and exploring of the thought can contribute to understanding and grasping the spiritual essence and the pursuit of value of Marx's thought objectively and comprehensively, to grasping and understanding Marxism completely and accurately so as to enhance elasticity of the theory and coaching skills in the realistic application. At the same time, the treasure house of Marx's thought can provide fresh resources for the reality. Each of Marx's point of views of political ethics thought can be combined with the reality, thus making it the guiding theory of the source of real life. Because of the limitations of the space and structure, this article describes the practical value of Marx's political ethics thought from three aspects, the "people-oriented" implementation, the dealing of the relations between the state and society, and the specific institutional arrangements.
Keywords/Search Tags:Marx, political ethics thought, ethics concern, value judgment, the pursuit of justice
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