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Strategic Research On "Offshore Balance" In The US Asia-Pacific Region

Posted on:2020-04-21Degree:DoctorType:Dissertation
Country:ChinaCandidate:X Q ZhangFull Text:PDF
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Since the World War II,the United States has leapt to the top in the world.After the end of the cold war,especially the collapse of Soviet Union,made the U.S.truly the only hegemon of the current international system.The containment strategy during the Cold War time was no longer the right national strategy for the U.S.,however,the scholars has never stopped the discussion for searching the new national strategy.During the Clinton administration,the U.S.had played “the World Policeman” role in the unlimited expansion strategy with promotion of the democracy and human rights in the rest of the world.The early time in Bush administration,one can observe the changing signs in strategic adjustment,but the 911 terrorism attack to the mainland America abruptly changed the U.S.national strategy into the whirlpool of the Middle East war,which succumbed to military-priority arrangements and totally ignored the situation in Europe and Asia-Pacific.After Obama took office,the “Pivot/Rebalance to Asia” strategy was announced and the U.S.began to withdrawal the troops from the Middle East and made a major adjustment that was to deploy 60% of the U.S.military power in the Asia-Pacific region.China and Russia were defined as the “Strategic rival “in the National Security Strategy of the U.S..After Donald Trump took office,the return of the “Indo-Pacific Strategy ”still followed the logic of the “Rebalance to Asia “strategy.It can be seen that in the general sense,the formulation of the US Grand Strategy is based on realistic considerations.Under the current international system anarchy,it is necessary to formulate a strategy suitable for its own development from the perspective of national strength and national interests.Also,the political process in the United States will be influenced by the adjustment of specific strategic orientations and strategic objectives.In the debate on the grand strategy after the Cold War,the offshore balance strategy was marginalized.After Obama proposed the Asia-Pacific rebalancing strategy,the offshore balance strategy was re-discussed by many scholars.Looking back at the theoretical sources of the Asia-Pacific rebalancing strategy,one can see that the strategy is inseparable from the offshore balance strategy logic.In the perspective of the ancient geopolitics theories,the design of offshore balance strategy is based on the traditional power structure of balance and the control between sea power and land power.Combining the core viewpoint of marginal zone theory,the land-sea compound power country will take the most advantageous position and occupy the geocompetition.The classic offshore balance strategy starts from the theoretical origin of offensive realism.It believes that structural factors such as anarchy and power distribution are the most important elements in explaining international politics.Under anarchy status,the hegemonic system actually has hierarchical characteristics.The country in absolute hegemony position has in fact been in a position full of danger and anxious.The conflict between potential rising countries and existing hegemonic countries caused by security competition is turns out inevitable.In order to avoid conflicts that will directly affect the United States,the U.S.can push back the strategic distance from the rising power of the Eurasian continent in that sense,withdraws military power,and shirks responsibility for other major powers in the region is the right thing to do.At a critical moment,the United States can use the force for decisive intervention to completely regain the regional balance structure and maintain the dominant position in the region.The theoretical premise of the classic offshore balance strategy is that the rise of regional powers will certainly create conflicts with existing hegemonic states,which will inevitably lead to war.However,in practice,it can be found that countries are trying so hard to avoid "hot war" that described in the classic offshore balance theory.The reduce defense premise is also questionable.Also,the intension of the strategic rivals are uncertainly,also may not be hostile at all.Last,the classic offshore balance strategy is lack of theoretical construction so that the theory right now only stays in the stage of deductive,lacking an operational strategic process deduction.Through the complete strategy implementation process of Obama's two terms,this dissertation examines the practice of the Asia-Pacific rebalancing strategy from the national,regional and system levels,raised the case study on the South China Sea situation under the strategic adjustment of the United States.This dissertation intends to review the situation from the perspective of the US strategic process and try to conclude the strategic counter-measures,especially the strategic impact on Sino-US relations.In the Asia-Pacific region,the United States has tried to build "alliance + partnership" that surrounds China in militarily and economically.The attempt to block China is turns out to be a failure.Throughout its own strength and economic attractiveness,China has continuously resolved the encirclement of the United States and its allies,especially through the "One Belt,One Road" initiative to form a strategic counteraction to the US economic strategy adjustment.It can be seen that the current reality of the Asia-Pacific rebalancing strategy fully reflects the idea of offshore balance,but there is a distance from the theory itself.In the key practical steps of the Asia-Pacific rebalancing strategy,it has a strong American endorsement and all-weather participation,which are directly influenced by the behavioral and strategic intent from China.Therefore,the bottom line of the U.S.rebalancing strategy practice deployed in the Asia-Pacific region is that war cannot be erupted,and the minor conflict cannot be upgraded into war.Many facts have proved that the "Thucydides trap" is possible to avoid.The broad space for cooperation and the intersection of benefits between China and the United States has reduced the conflict possibilities.In the future,both countries need to control the behaviors and increase trust while dispel doubts,and strengthen mutual benefit and win-win cooperation.
Keywords/Search Tags:American grand strategy, Offshore balancing strategy, Asia-pacific rebalancing strategy, South China sea, China-U.S.relations
PDF Full Text Request
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