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The Development And Mechanism Research Of Community Participation In Tourism In The Shibing Karst World Heritage Site

Posted on:2020-05-08Degree:MasterType:Thesis
Country:ChinaCandidate:S A YeFull Text:PDF
GTID:2416330596480000Subject:Human Geography
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As an important topic in the study of anthropology,sociology,geography,etc,“Community Participation in Tourism Development”plays a huge role in local development and coordination of human and natural relations.According to the World Heritage Sustainable Tourism Workbook,it is necessary for World Heritage Sites to interaction with local communities in the development of tourism.At the same time,local residents are regarded as the core of sustainable tourism,and actively participate in the tourism of heritage sites.However,it is unknown whether the title and identity of World Heritage Site will bring enough attractiveness and development opportunities in the practice of community participation,and the operational mechanism behind this unknown is worth looking forward to explore.Therefore,based on the qualitative research methods of in-depth interviews and field research,this paper takes the Shibing Karst World Natural Heritage Site as a case study,and takes the portal community as the main research object.It replays the three communities' participation in tourism development from the time dimension,and on this basis,summarizes the opportunities and restrictions faced by Shibing heritage community participation,and finally explores the community participation in tourism development mechanism.The study found:(1)Community participation in tourism in Shibing Heritage Site has experienced stage changes from the early “free-riding” participation,organized participation,to the current development dilemma.(2)Portal community participation in tourism development face with many opportunities and restrictions.Firstly,the tourism development of Shibing Heritage Site provides a basis for the community to participate in the development of the scenic spot,but the seasonal restrictions of the scenic spot also affect the seasonality of community participation.Secondly,the community residents of the heritage site have obtained close-to-nature development opportunities,but have not yet achieved linkage development with the scenic spots;Thirdly,although the local government has given the community strong support in policies,funds and projects,the community residents lack the ability to respond to tourism development policies.Lastly,the portal community has the best location advantage close to tourists,but the community has tourism.Positive changes in market changes,provided by the community but in the form of tourism products and services.(3)The community development mechanism of the Shibing Karst Heritage Site involves several major entities: communities,scenic spots,governments,and tourism markets.Through the development stages of tourism sites,policy systems,tourism markets,and community response paths,the stage change of community participation in tourism has been shaped.Firstly,at the end of the 20 th century,Shibing entered the exploration and start-up stage under the driving force of the region's first nature,where passenger flow laid a prerequisite for local villages to participate in tourism.Therefore,the neighboring community in the scenic spot enjoy the “dividends” of tourism development,and the residents form a proactive response to the development of local tourism under their driving,which promote residents to engage in certain activities in the community.In the initial stage of the development of the tourist destination,the local government is a“laissez-faire”role,and the free regional institutional environment also encourages local residents to participate in tourism with spontaneous “willingness-behavior”.Secondly,in the 21 st century,tourist destination ushered in the development period,where tourism activities were scaled up and normalized,and tourism spillover effects were gradually expanding,providing sufficient material support for community participation.With the growing tourism industry,the role of the region's first nature has become increasingly prominent,which made community participation being formalization,popularization,and economic benefits also being increased significantly.In the rapid development stage of tourist destination,the transformation of local government role is intervened by policy system,and manage the surrounding communities that participate in tourist.So community response is subject to intervention by the policy system,and participation in tourism will be affected and the community participation behavior.Obviously,local villagers participate in tourism in a passive way under government regulation,accepting the ways and measures supported by the government,expanding the scale of participation and increasing tourism revenue;Lastly,since 2016,owning to the restriction of peripheral tourist destination,the neighboring community development have been restricted,the residents' income is limited,the tourism livelihood method is difficult to maintain the residents' lives,the community response is greatly weakened,the willingness to participate is reduced,and finally give up participation in the tourism voluntarily.At the same time,the new tourist market is changing with each passing day,and higher standards are proposed for the surrounding community in participation.However,the limited capacity of local residents in traditional villages is difficult to adapt to the current market,that is,the gap between market development and community participation capacity leads to community participation in difficulties.The particularity of the natural resource environment gives the change of the identity of the tourist destination,and the subject represented by it is also changing,and the corresponding different systems are embedded in it.With the institutional constraints of different levels of subjects,the self-expression of the subjectivity of local community is restricted.Therefore,the residents' main body is peripheryed in the process of formulation,decision-making and implementation in community participation,whichled to the willingness of participate being neglected,and the participation being actively withdrawn.Through the qualitative study of the portal community participation in the Shibing Karst World Natural Heritage Site,this paper hopes to provide reference for the development of rural tourism in the China's peripheral mountainous areas and formulation of local government policies,and theoretical thinking for Rural Revitalization.
Keywords/Search Tags:Shibing Karst, World heritage site, Community participation in tourism, Mechanism of community participation in tourism
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