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Research On Factors And Mechanisms Of Students' Physical Exercise Behavior In Junior High School

Posted on:2013-01-01Degree:DoctorType:Dissertation
Country:ChinaCandidate:D L FuFull Text:PDF
GTID:1117330374471345Subject:Basic education
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Students in junior high school are experiencing severe changes and rapid development both physically and psychologically and the junior high school years is also the key period of an individual's motor performance and the information of exercise behavior and exercise habit. Exercise behavior in this period will be the basis of its subsequent healthy lifestyle. In addition, students'behavior in junior high school is shapeable, and effective behavioral interventions will help them develop positive exercise behavior a healthy lifestyle. More important, exercise habit formed in adolescence can be transferred into adulthood and exert profound impact on their health and lifestyle. However, researches have showed that numerous students quit from sports, especially in6-9grade. In addition, according to results of the National Student Physical Fitness and Health Survey, the exercise level of youth students is seriously inadequate and the indicators of vital capacity and physical fitness continuously decline trend year by year. Therefore, it has been an urgent need to understand the status, characteristics and influencing factors of physical exercise behavior in depth, particularly to reveal the characteristics and laws of behavior change of students in junior high school. Therefore, studies on factors that influencing physical exercise behavior and the exploration of the potential mechanisms of behavior change will not only provide targeted basis for health behavior interventions but also offer reference to the reform of physical education, effective physical education teaching and cultivation of students'exercise habits.Analysis of the existing literature, researchers have fruitfully explored the exercise time, space, exercise motivation, exercise constraints about exercise behavior. However, work on exercise behavior aspect specifically, although easy to study in depth and implementation, but also tend to have the complex exercise behavioral phenomenon be analyzed fragmentally, as a result of losing the holistic and systemic understanding and grasp of the behavioral phenomenon. In addition, most existing literatures studied the factors and exercise behavior with the perspective of correlation, lacking analysis of the potential structural or causal relationship between factors. Meanwhile, analysis on population distribution studied shows that research on junior high school students exercise behavior is relatively weak.Considering the reasons of junior high school students are in key period of the development of exercise behavior, the prominent quittance phenomenon and the lack of physical exercise, the significance of the study and the practical needs in addition to the weaknesses of existing research on this issue mentioned above, under the comprehensively preconditional analysis of mechanism theory, stage of change theory, self-efficacy theory, self-determination theory of motivation, the expectancy-value model and ecological models for physical activity, on the basis of interviews with experts, PE teachers, students and their parents, this study established "Junior High School Exercise Behavior Questionnaire". And factors of exercise behavior stage, exercise level and exercise constraints of students in junior high school as well as exercise motivation, exercise performance and other psychological factors, school exercise conditions, physical education curriculum and other school factors and parents exercise behavior, parent support and other family factors were investigated with the questionnaire developed by this study. With the method of stratified cluster sampling, this study investigated a total of7secondary schools in Chongqing, which includes two schools in the main city, three schools in district and county and two middle school in township and with a total of1700questionnaires was delivered, with1547response and1383valid questionnaires. Descriptive statistical analysis and analysis of variance was execute in order to examine difference of the status and influencing factors between genders, grade and school type with statistical analysis software Spss18.0. And discriminant analysis and regression analysis was used to examines the impact of factors on exercise behavior include the power of prediction and the correct rate of exercise behavior stage re-grouped by independent variables. The structural equation modeling analysis was used to examine the role and mechanisms of the psychological factors, school factors and family factors on exercise behavior with statistical analysis software Amos18.0.The results showed that the questionnaire has good homogeneity reliability, test-retest reliability, split-half reliability, content validity and structural validity, which is an effective tool to measure the physical exercise behavior of junior high school students. Typically, the physical exercise level of junior high school students was low. Distribution of the sample across the stages was:precontemplation, n=104(7.5%); contemplation, n=132(9.5%); preparation, n=665(48.1%); action, n=233(16.8%); and maintenance, n=249(18.0%). The main obstacle of junior high school students' exercise is the pressure of study, homework or lack of playgrounds and facilities. In terms of gender, boys participate in exercise more frequently than girls; boys are also significantly higher than girls in the aspect of the intensity of exercise motivation, exercise efficacy, physical-efficacy and the cognition of the value of physical exercise. Boys also prefer physical education than girls and have higher demands on the facilities in school. In terms of grade, the students' exercise behavior showed a decreasing trend year by year, psychological variables of exercise motivation, exercise-efficacy and value judgments on the exercise also appeared the same trend. Family variable of support from parent shows significant difference between grades with students of grade one significantly higher than grade there. First and second year students show higher favorite than third year students on PE curriculum and PE teachers. Moreover, the third year students are more constrained by study pressure than the other two grades. Given the location of the school, students from downtown and township schools perform better on physical exercise than that from district school. Students from downtown schools do better at the persistence of exercise and the confidence of physical exercise capacity, while, students from township schools do better at the cognition of the importance of physical exercise than the other type of schools. Students from township school prefer PE than other type of school. The score of PE teacher variable, township school students gain the highest score, followed by downtown schools, and the lowest of district schools. To the school facilities, downtown schools are the best followed by district schools, and township schools are the worst.The difference of psychological variables of exercise motivation, exercise-efficacy, physical-efficacy and value judgment toward physical exercise between individuals within different stage group is significant; individuals within high stage of group have high level of self-efficacy, motivation and cognition of value toward exercise. Psychological factors could account for37.6%variance of exercise behavior, and the re-classification correct rate is39.0%. Simultaneous analysis of several groups with SEM shows that self-efficacy directly effects on exercise behavior while through the mediation of exercise motivation and value cognition indirectly affects the exercise behavior. Exercise motivation and perceived value (boys) have a direct impact on exercise behavior, while the value of cognitive is a mediator in the path between exercise motivation and exercise behavior (girls). Gender is a moderator in the structural equation model of exercise behavior mechanisms by psychology. For school factors, variables of curriculum-teacher (PE curriculum and PE teacher), school facility and exercise opportunity are significantly different between individuals within different stage group and can in total account for20%variance of exercise behavior. The correct rate re-classified by school variables is30.9%. Simultaneous analysis of several groups with SEM shows that curriculum-teacher's direct effect on exercise behavior is not significant, while its effect on exercise behavior mainly exerts through the mediator of school facility and exercise opportunity. School facility and exercise opportunity have direct effect on exercise behavior (downtown and district school group). School facility is a mediator in the path between exercise opportunity and exercise behavior. Location of the school is a moderator in the structural equation model of exercise behavior mechanisms by school factors. For the family factors, variables of parent exercise behavior, equipment in home and support from parent are significantly different between individuals within different stage group and can in total account for31.2%variance of student's exercise behavior. The correct rate re-classified by family variables is33%. Simultaneous analysis of several groups with SEM shows that parent exercise behavior directly affects boys' exercise behavior while the direct effect on girls' exercise behavior is not significant. Parent exercise behavior also has indirect effect on students' exercise behavior mediated by variables of equipment in home and support from parent. Support from parent has direct effect on students'exercise behavior and indirectly affects students' exercise behavior through the mediator of equipment in home (girls). Equipment in home's effect on girls'exercise behavior is not significant. Gender is a moderator in in the structural equation model of exercise behavior mechanisms by family factors.In order to test the external validity of mechanisms of psychological factors school environmental factors and family environmental factors that affecting student's exercise behavior in junior high school, this thesis verified the mechanisms with data from a different sample. The results showed a good fit between data and structural equation model, and the path coefficients and structural relationship between factors consistent with previous findings. Indicate that the mechanisms constructed in the research have good external validity.The innovation of the paper mainly involves:(1) the topic and content, this is the first doctoral dissertation studying the students' exercise behavior in the perspective of mechanisms in junior high school with the method of SEM. Through the analysis of mechanisms of psychological factors, school factors and family factors, this study explores the potential structural relationships and the causal links of the factors affecting exercise behavior and reveals students'exercise behavior characteristics and the law of behavior change in junior high school.(2) Statistical analysis methods, with the simultaneous analysis of several groups with SEM, this study explores the potential structural relationships and the causal links of the factors affecting exercise behavior and analyzed the direct effects and the mediating effect of variables on students' exercise behavior in junior high school and the moderating effect of gender and type of school.Limited by time, funding, my own capacity and others, the shortcomings of this study are:First, the mechanisms of exercise behavior constructed by the research are not tested with the method of experiment, while only a preliminary validation of the external validity was tested with a different samples. Second, only students in Chongqing are chosen as the sample, the range is not widely enough. The weakness is also the force for step forward, so these are also what the author will carry on for further and in-depth study in the future.
Keywords/Search Tags:junior high school students, physical exercise behavior, mechanism
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