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A Review On The Agriculture-Oriented Ideology Of Shang Yang

Posted on:2008-01-26Degree:MasterType:Thesis
Country:ChinaCandidate:P F NiuFull Text:PDF
GTID:2166360215952843Subject:Political Theory
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During Warring States period, with the merger war among the nobilities and the "big fish eats little fish" staged repeatedly, rulers begin to be more rational and prudent in many countries to choose thinking of ruling a country, to pursue their own military and the world's grand cause of reunification. At this point at the western border of China, Qinxiaogong, who had just ascended the throne in Qin, determined to accomplish something. His aim was to enable Qin gain upper hand in such fierce merger war, so he released Seeking Chao.It is in this situation Shang Yang came to Qin, proposing his own plan that would make Qin powerful. Since then, his agriculture-oriented ideology, as an important part of rural power projects, began to emerge on the historical stage. This shows that the most immediate purpose of the agriculture-oriented ideology is to help Qin to be state-rich and military-power. In other words, the ideology adapted to the characteristics of the times and the specific needs of Qin. Therefore, there was the possibility that it might change from an ideological theories into concrete practice and application, not just an empty academic thinking. From today's position on the agriculture-oriented ideology make logical thinking and understanding of valuation, we will further deepen the understanding of the Legalists'political ideology and theory of ruling a country. Moreover, there will be some reference to related issues of political reality.To systematic exposition of the agriculture-oriented ideology, this paper is divided into five sections:First, an introduction to the emergence of the agriculture-oriented ideology of Shang Yang. An ideology, we only analyzed the background it emerged first, that we can be more profound, more comprehensive grasp of the essence of this thinking. The agriculture-oriented ideology is no exception. Mainly from two aspects to describe this part of the agriculture-oriented ideology emerge. First is the historical root of this ideology, which means the social and historical conditions of agriculture-oriented ideology, it is what kind of the situation. We know that the agriculture-oriented ideology of Shang Yang emerged in the Warring States period in ancient China. The immediate goal is to help Qin to be state-rich and military-power. Therefore, the historical source is mainly about political background, economic backgrounds, condition of Qin. Political background, the Warring States period is the period with the ongoing merger war among the nobilities. The characteristics forced each country to make their effort to find a way to make their countries powerful. Reformers were there, and there were law changers. The real needs of war paved the way for the agriculture-oriented ideology as a player on the stage of history. Economic backgrounds, with the development of the productive forces, handicrafts and commerce led to the unprecedented prosperity. The development of industry accelerated the collapse of slavery. However, we know that the economic characteristics of a feudal society is a natural economy, commodity economy are not the inevitable product of the feudal society, so just after the founding of feudal system, the development of the commodity economy will play a role in decomposition. The extraordinary industrial development had affected the development of agriculture, even damaged. Therefore, between the commodity economy and the feudal system, there are contradictions. The emergence of this contradiction became soil germination of the ideology. Finally, the conditions of Qin provided an opportunity for the realization of this ideology. The ruler of Qin eagerly anticipated a kind of thinking of ruling a country that would be able to help his country state-rich and military-power. The combination is "perfect." Second, ideological roots, the agriculture-oriented ideology of Shang Yang was born on the basis of attracting predecessors'stressing agriculture. Guowengong in Western Zhou and Li Kui in the Warring States period here are specifically cited as examples. The former can be regarded as a concentrated summation of farmers thinking of the three generations Xia, Shang, Zhou. And Li Kui's idea of stressing agriculture is the direct source of the agriculture-oriented ideology of Shang Yang.Second, conception and practical significance of the agriculture-oriented ideology of Shang Yang. Expound from the following four aspects: First, Shang Yang pointed that agriculture is the source of people's food, clothing, and a prerequisite to maintain social stability and consolidate the feudal domination. From"agriculture"to"stable"; Secondly, Shang Yang agreed that agriculture is the main source of tax revenue in feudal state, the country's economic base, from "agriculture" to "wealth", so agriculture stressed; Third, Shang Yang thought that the development of agriculture is an important measure to achieve strong, from "agriculture" to "strong", so agriculture stressed; Finally, Shang Yang pointed out that agricultural development is the fundamental way to achieve the reunification of China. From "agriculture" to "domination." Hence, agriculture was ought to be stressed, "agriculture-based".Third, the historical practice of the agriculture-oriented ideology of Shang Yang. This is as follows: with the guidance under the agriculture-oriented ideology Shang Yang had adopted a series of measures to develop agriculture in Qin. These measures can be divided into two aspects: One is to promote the development of agriculture, which is a direct reflection of Shang Yang's idea. The four include :①to ensure an adequate number of the agricultural labor force;②to mobilize farmers'activity;③to strengthen the management of officials;④to strengthen the management of grain circulation. Second, restrictions on the development of other sectors, the so-called "stunning end", in which mainly about restrictions on the development of commerce, referred to as "stunning commerce". These are the indirect reflection of this idea. They were:①to raise prices of grain, which is intended to restrict the sale of food with businessmen, but also indirectly to protect the interests of farmers.②to levy heavy taxes on business;③to aggravate businessmen's corvee;④to raise price of wine and meat and fight against luxury trade;⑤to set up obstacles to businessmen's trading activities.Fourth, a comparative research between the agriculture-oriented ideology of Shang Yang and other legalists'idea of stressing agriculture. Here, I compare Shang Yang's with Li Kui's and Han Fei's respectively. Only by doing so we can understand the essence and meaning of the ideology more clearlyFifth, the evaluation of the agriculture-oriented ideology. Here I make an objective and fair assessment of the ideology. We point out its positive significance, meanwhile, we seriously think of limitations and fragmentation of the ideology. If so, we will further understand the agriculture-oriented ideology.
Keywords/Search Tags:Agriculture-Oriented
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